Table 1.

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of breast cancer cases at study enrollment

CharacteristicTotal (n = 4,826)aExercisers (n = 3,115)aNonexercisers (n = 1,711)aPb
Age at diagnosis, y53.5 (10.0)53.4 (10.0)53.6 (10.1)0.452
Education, %
 <High school46.545.049.20.003
 High school37.638.037.0
 >High school15.917.113.8
Income (yuan/mo/capita), %
 <1,00057.756.559.90.008
 1,000–1,99930.430.630.0
 ≥2,00011.912.910.1
Married/living with partner, %88.088.187.80.801
Interval from diagnosis to study enrollment, mo6.5 (0.7)6.5 (0.7)6.5 (0.8)0.755
Charlson comorbidity index ≥119.819.520.50.377
TNM stage, %
 I34.836.431.9<0.001c
 IIa33.934.033.8
 IIb17.216.518.4
 III9.48.411.2
 Unknown4.74.74.9
ER/PR status, %
 Positive (ER+/PR+)50.350.250.30.651c
 Negative (ER/PR)27.427.127.9
 Mixed (ER+/PR or ER/PR+)20.420.819.8
 Unknown1.91.82.0
Ever received chemotherapy, %92.291.294.0<0.001
Ever received radiotherapy, %32.429.637.5<0.001
Ever received immunotherapy, %14.815.114.40.580
Ever used tamoxifen, %51.954.348.0<0.001
Type of surgery, %
 Mastectomy94.194.793.80.352
 Conservation2.62.52.8
 Others3.02.83.3
Family history of breast cancer, %5.65.55.70.695
BMI, kg/m224.1 (3.4)24.1 (3.3)24.2 (3.6)0.174
Waist-to-hip ratio0.83 (0.05)0.83 (0.05)0.84 (0.06)<0.001
Cigarette smoking, %2.62.23.30.020
Alcohol consumption, %3.12.93.50.271
Tea consumption, %23.625.320.5<0.001
Postmenopausal, %51.151.151.20.935
Meat intake, g/d82.7 (57.8)83.6 (56.8)81.1 (59.0)0.148
Cruciferous vegetable intake, g/d74.6 (53.0)78.3 (52.1)68.0 (54.0)<0.001
Soy protein intake, g/d11.4 (8.6)12.0 (8.8)10.1 (8.0)<0.001
QOL score58.1 (14.2)59.3 (13.6)55.9 (14.9)<0.001
  • aUnless otherwise specified, means (SD) are presented.

  • bFor tests of differences between women with and without exercise participation.

  • cFor the χ2 test, “unknown” group was excluded.