Table 3.

Changes in inflammation z-score in plasma of colorectal adenoma patients

 Baseline6-mo follow-upAbsolute treatment effectaRelative treatment effectb
nMeanSDMeanSDMean95% CIPc
Inflammation z-scored
 Placebo230.202.960.693.48N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium23−0.352.79−0.502.94−0.65(−1.62 to 0.31)0.180.52
 Vitamin D22−0.812.66−1.782.74−1.47(−2.42 to −0.51)0.0030.23
 Calcium + vitamin D230.603.050.692.99−0.41(−1.37 to 0.55)0.400.67
  • aAbsolute treatment effect is the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the treatment group minus the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the placebo group from mixed model.

  • bRelative treatment effect is defined as: (treatment group follow-up/treatment group baseline)/(placebo follow-up/placebo baseline).

  • cP values for difference between each treatment group and the placebo group from mixed model.

  • dInflammation z-score: z-score of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (CRP, IL6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10) calculated by subtracting the mean and dividing by the SD (thus creating a mean of zero and SD of 1.0) for each participant's individual biomarker value at each visit and then summing the biomarker z-score values for each participant at each visit (IL-10 was included with a negative sign).