Table 1.

Chemopreventive effects of atorvastatin, sulindac, naproxen alone, or combination of low-dose atorvastatin with either sulindac or naproxen on azoxymethane-induced colon adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity in male F344 rats

Tumor incidenceTumor multiplicity
Experimental groupaNumber of rats at autopsy% of rats with adenocarcinomasb% inhibitionAdenocarcinomas/rat,c mean ± SE% inhibition
AOM-control (AIN-76A) diet3123/31 (74.2%)1.77 ± 0.31
AOM-sulindac (100 ppm)3319/33 (57.6%)22.4%1.15 ± 0.2635.0%
AOM-naproxen (150 ppm)3017/30 (56.7%)23.6%1.23 ± 0.2530.5%
AOM-atorvastatin (200 ppm)3111/31 (35.5%; P = 0.005)52.2%0.74 ± 0.19 (P = 0.008)58.2%
AOM-atorvastatin (100 ppm) + sulindac (100 ppm)3210/32 (31.3%; P = 0.001)57.8%0.31 ± 0.09 (P1 < 0.0001; P2 = 0.005)82.5%
AOM-atorvastatin (100 ppm) + naproxen (150 ppm)339/33 (27.3%; P = 0.0004)63.2%0.27 ± 0.08 (P1 < 0.0001; P2 = 0.004)84.8%

Abbreviations: AOM, azoxymethane; SE, standard error.

  • aTest agents were administered in the diet following the second AOM or saline treatment and continuously thereafter for the duration of the experiment which is 45 weeks from the start of AOM or saline treatment.

  • bTumor incidence was analyzed by 2-tailed Fisher's exact probability test in comparison with the control group.

  • cStatistical significance was analyzed using Student's t test. P1 is the value for the comparison of rats treated with chemopreventive agents with control rats; P2 is the value for the comparison of rats treated with combination of low-dose atorvastatin (100 ppm) with rats treated with either sulindac or naproxen alone.