Table 2.

Multivariable HRsa and 95% CIs for the additive effect of an increase in poultry or fish intake and cancer risk, NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (N = 492,186)

Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Cancer siteDietary intakeRefHR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CIPtrend
Oral cavity
n = 1,305Poultry1.001.070.90–1.260.970.81–1.161.110.93–1.321.050.87–1.260.62
Fish1.001.030.87–1.221.000.84–1.180.970.81–1.160.900.75–1.090.17
Larynx
n = 472 (M)Poultryb1.000.890.68–1.171.000.76–1.320.960.72–1.291.040.77–1.410.61
n = 95 (F)Poultryb1.001.040.61–1.770.720.39–1.340.790.42–1.500.270.10–0.710.004
Fish1.001.010.78–1.290.880.68–1.151.000.77–1.311.030.79–1.360.68
Esophagus, squamous cell
n = 185Poultry1.000.970.66–1.420.670.43–1.050.440.26–0.760.690.42–1.130.04
Fish1.000.950.62–1.470.990.63–1.550.930.58–1.480.980.61–1.590.84
Esophagus, adenocarcinoma
n = 553Poultry1.000.920.71–1.190.850.65–1.111.030.79–1.350.950.72–1.260.92
Fish1.000.940.73–1.210.880.68–1.140.830.63–1.090.780.59–1.030.06
Stomach, cardia
n = 418Poultry1.000.770.56–1.040.900.66–1.220.990.73–1.341.000.73–1.360.37
Fish1.001.030.76–1.390.960.70–1.311.050.77–1.430.980.71–1.350.85
Stomach, noncardia
n = 510Poultry1.001.200.79–1.330.920.70–1.210.910.69–1.210.800.59–1.070.10
Fish1.001.080.82–1.410.810.60–1.091.220.93–1.611.110.84–1.480.27
Small intestine
n = 379Poultry1.000.980.63–1.531.210.78–1.871.440.94–2.211.410.91–2.170.07
Fish1.001.000.66–1.501.280.86–1.880.700.44–1.100.840.54–1.300.99
Colon
n = 5,095Poultry1.001.040.96–1.130.960.88–1.051.030.95–1.130.970.89–1.070.43
Fish1.000.980.90–1.070.980.90–1.070.960.88–1.050.950.87–1.040.30
Rectum
n = 1,884Poultry1.000.870.76–1.000.990.86–1.140.950.82–1.100.840.72–0.980.08
Fish1.000.950.82–1.090.810.70–0.940.870.75–1.010.960.83–1.110.88
Anus
n = 164Poultry1.001.010.63–1.621.010.63–1.640.850.51–1.420.920.55–1.540.58
Fish1.001.260.80–2.011.070.66–1.740.860.51–1.440.710.41–1.230.06
Liver
n = 582Poultry1.000.950.75–1.210.790.61–1.010.750.57–0.980.750.57–0.990.03
Fish1.001.000.78–1.281.010.79–1.300.950.73–1.240.860.65–1.130.16
Bile ducts
n = 307Poultry1.001.100.76–1.591.140.78–1.651.060.72–1.551.270.87–1.850.25
Fish1.000.720.49–1.060.870.60–1.251.080.76–1.531.010.71–1.450.30
Pancreas
n = 1,727Poultry1.001.030.89–1.201.020.87–1.191.110.95–1.301.100.94–1.290.22
Fish1.001.070.92–1.251.000.86–1.171.080.93–1.271.120.96–1.310.15
Lung
n = 9,751Poultry1.000.940.89–1.000.940.89–1.000.900.84–0.960.910.85–0.970.01
Fish1.001.030.97–1.101.081.01–1.151.040.98–1.111.010.94–1.080.65
Pleura
n = 218Poultry1.000.940.63–1.411.160.78–1.720.710.45–1.140.930.60–1.460.52
Fish1.001.761.18–2.631.090.69–1.711.080.68–1.711.040.64–1.670.27
Bladder
n = 2,296Poultry1.000.860.76–0.980.890.78–1.010.920.81–1.050.830.73–0.960.07
Fish1.001.030.90–1.181.080.95–1.231.151.00–1.311.130.99–1.290.06
Kidney
n = 2,065Poultry1.000.940.82–1.080.940.82–1.080.940.82–1.091.000.87–1.160.51
Fish1.001.010.88–1.161.070.93–1.241.120.97–1.291.100.93–1.280.15
Thyroid
n = 250 (M)Poultryb1.001.2310.79–1.931.230.78–1.931.460.94–2.261.741.14–2.670.005
n = 333 (F)Poultryb1.000.730.52–1.030.680.48–0.960.690.49–0.980.820.58–1.140.66
Fish1.001.150.88–1.511.140.87–1.501.250.95–1.641.180.90–1.550.38
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
n = 2,905Poultry1.001.040.92–1.161.060.94–1.190.970.86–1.100.990.87–1.120.51
Fish1.000.980.87–1.111.080.96–1.221.070.95–1.201.090.97–1.230.09
Leukemia
n = 1,625Poultry1.000.970.83–1.130.970.82–1.131.010.86–1.181.060.90–1.250.31
Fish1.001.000.85–1.171.090.93–1.270.950.81–1.121.000.85–1.180.74
Melanoma
n = 2,960Poultry1.001.090.96–1.231.201.06–1.351.161.02–1.311.030.91–1.170.86
Fish1.001.100.97–1.241.120.99–1.261.171.04–1.321.191.05–1.340.01
Brain
n = 749Poultry1.001.230.97–1.551.200.94–1.521.040.81–1.341.100.86–1.410.95
Fish1.001.140.91–1.451.040.82–1.331.220.97–1.551.050.83–1.350.77
Myeloma
n = 893Poultry1.001.090.88–1.330.980.79–1.210.920.73–1.140.930.74–1.150.19
Fish1.000.940.76–1.160.940.76–1.161.010.82–1.251.030.84–1.280.47
Male breast
n = 129Poultry1.001.080.60–1.971.410.79–2.521.460.81–2.631.690.95–3.020.06
Fish1.001.140.67–1.940.740.41–1.350.970.56–1.700.890.51–1.580.66
Prostate
n = 23,453Poultry1.001.061.02–1.101.041.00–1.091.040.99–1.081.051.00–1.090.23
Fish1.001.030.99–1.071.041.00–1.091.051.00–1.091.020.98–1.060.67
Female breast, postmenopausal
n = 7,181Poultry1.000.970.90–1.040.980.91–1.060.990.92–1.070.980.90–1.060.92
Fish1.001.050.98–1.141.050.98–1.141.070.99–1.151.050.97–1.140.40
Endometrium
n = 1,593Poultry1.001.050.89–1.241.090.93–1.281.020.87–1.210.930.78–1.100.15
Fish1.001.040.88–1.220.970.83–1.151.150.98–1.351.120.95–1.320.06
Ovary
n = 758Poultry1.001.100.87–1.391.170.93–1.481.070.84–1.361.100.87–1.360.75
Fish1.001.000.80–1.260.860.68–1.091.040.83–1.311.040.83–1.320.41
Cervix
n = 147Poultry1.000.810.47–1.401.330.81–2.190.970.56–1.671.100.65–1.880.66
Fish1.000.910.55–1.530.880.53–1.490.910.54–1.540.900.54–1.520.82

NOTE: N = 293,466 men; 198,720 women.

Abbreviations: M, male; F, female.

  • aAddition model: adjusted for red meat intake, age, sex, education, marital status, family history of cancer, race, BMI, smoking status, frequency of vigorous physical activity, MHT in women, and intake of alcohol, fruit, vegetables, and total energy; mutually adjusted for intake of fish or poultry.

  • bStatistically significant interaction with sex.