Table 1.

Characteristics and performance of most recent tissue-based candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer

ReferencesSpecimensType of markerAnalyteClinical purposeNo. of markersPathologic subtypeAssay platformPreclinical samplesBM dev. phaseTraining setValidation setSensitivitySpecificityAUC
Halling (26)Bronchial specimensDNA5p15, 7p12 (EGFR), 8q24 (C-MYC), CEP6Diagnosis4NSCLCFISH + cytologyn/aIn/a13761–75a83–100an/a
Massion (27)Bronchial biopsiesDNATP63, MYC, CEP3, CEP6 + sputum cytology + demographicsDiagnosis4NSCLCFISHn/aIIn/a70n/an/a92.6
Feng (38)Tumors and normal tissuesDNA methylationRARB, BVES, CDKN2A, KCNH5, RASSF1, CDH13, RUNX, CDH1Diagnosis8NSCLCMethylation arrayn/aI49n/an/an/an/a
Anglim (22)Tumors and normal tissuesDNA methylationGDNF, MTHFR, OPCML, TNFRSF25, TCF21, PAX8, PTPRN2, and PITX2Diagnosis8SCCMethylation arrayn/aI43n/a95.6a95.6an/a
Schmidt (25)Bronchial aspiratesDNA methylationSHOX2Diagnosis1NSCLCPCRn/aIIn/a523689586
Richards (24)Tumors and normal tissuesDNA methylationTCF21Diagnosis1NSCLCPCRn/aII42637698an/a
Spira (37)Airway epitheliummRNAGene expression signatureDiagnosis80NSCLCAffy arrayn/aII77528084n/a
Beane (28)Airway epitheliummRNAGene expression signature + clinical factorsDiagnosis80NSCLC and SCLCAffy arrayn/aII76621009197
Kim (111)Tumors and normal tissuesmRNACBLC, CYP24A1, ALDH3A1, AKR1B10, S100P, PLUNC, LOC147Diagnosis7NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aII3236bn/an/an/a
Blomquist (30)Tumors and normal tissuesmRNACAT, CEBPG, E2F1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GPX3, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTZ1, MGST1, SOD1, XRCC1Diagnosis14NSCLCRT-PCRn/aIIn/a49, 40n/an/a82–87
Rahman (36)Bronchial biopsiesMALDI signatureTMLS4, ACBP, CSTA, cyto C, MIF, ubiquitin, ACBP, Des-ubiquitinDiagnosis9NSCLCMALDI/MSn/aII5160668877

NOTE: Data organized by year of publication and type of marker considered.

Abbreviations: AUC, area under the curve; BM dev. phase, biomarker development phase; n/a, not available; qPCR, quantitative real-time PCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SCLC, small cell lung cancer.

  • aValues derived from training set only.

  • bValidation and training sets overlap.