Table 2.

Characteristics and performance of most recent blood-based candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer

ReferencesSpecimensType of markerAnalyteClinical purposeNo. of markersPathologic subtypeAssay platformPreclinical samplesBM dev. phaseTraining setValidation setSensitivitySpecificityAUC
Zhong (60)SerumAutoABPhage peptide clonesDiagnosis5Lung cancerELISAn/aII465691a91a99a
Chapman (64)SerumAutoABp53, cmyc, HER2, NY-ESO-1, CAGE, MUC1, GBU4-5Diagnosis7Lung cancerELISAn/aI154n/an/an/an/a
Qiu (65)SerumAutoABAnnexin I, 14-3-3 theta, LAMR1Diagnosis3NSCLCProtein array170III170518273
Wu (63)SerumAutoABPhage peptide clonesDiagnosis6NSCLCELISAn/aII20180929296
Farlow (112)SerumAutoABIMPDH, PGAM1, ubiquilin, ANXA1, ANXA2, HSP70-9BDiagnosis6NSCLCELISAn/aII196n/a94.8a91.1a96.4a
Boyle (113)SerumAutoABp53, NY-ESO-1, CAGE, GBU4-5, Annexin 1, and SOX2Diagnosis6NSCLCELISAn/aII241255329164
Greenberg (48)SerumDNA methylationS-AdenosylmethionineDiagnosis1Lung cancerHPLCn/aI68n/a92–100a91–97a94–99a
Begum (49)SerumDNA methylationAPC, CDH1, MGMT, DCC, RASSF1A, AIMDiagnosis6NSCLCqPCRn/aII32–6391068457n/a
Chen (114)SerummiRNAmiRNA signatureDiagnosis10NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aII310310939097
Bianchi (54)SerummiRNAmiRNA signatureDiagnosis34NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aII6464719089
Kulpa (115)SerumProteinCEA, CYFRA 21-1, SCC-Ag, NSEDiagnosis4SCCELISAn/aII42020–629571–90
Patz (55)SerumProteinCEA, RBP4, hAAT, SCCADiagnosis4Lung cancerELISAn/aII100977875n/a
Takano (116)SerumProteinNectin-4Diagnosis1NSCLCELISAn/aII2955498n/a
Yildiz (56)SerumProteinMALDI/MS signatureDiagnosis7NSCLCMALDI/MSn/aII1851065885.782
Pecot (19)SerumProteinModel: MALDI/MS signature + clinical and imaging dataDiagnosis7Indeterm. lung noduleMALDI/MSn/aII100n/an/a72
Diamandis (117)SerumProteinPenatraxin-3Diagnosis1Lung cancerELISAn/aI42637–4880–9060–74
Ostroff (118)SerumAptamerscadherin-1, CD30 ligand, endostatin, HSP90a, LRIG3, MIP-4, pleiotrophin, PRKCI, RGM-C, SCF-sR, sL-selectin, and YESDiagnosis6NSCLCAptamersn/aII985341898390
Zhong (119)PlasmaAutoABTAA signatureDiagnosis5NSCLCProtein microarray5I81n/a90a95an/a
Kneip (120)PlasmaDNA methylationSHOX2Diagnosis1NSCLCqPCRn/aII40371609078
Shen (121)PlasmamiRNAmiRNA-21, -126, -210, -486-5pDiagnosis4NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aII2887869793
Wei (122)PlasmamiRNAmiR-21Diagnosis1NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aI93n/a76a70a77.5a
Taguchi (123)PlasmaProtein, 2 panelsEGFR, SFTPB, WFDC2, ANGPTL3, ANXA1, YWHAQ, Lmr1Diagnosis7NSLCLELISA52IIIn/an/an/a89
Boeri (53)Plasma/tissuesmiRNAmiRNA signatureDiagnosis13Lung cancermiRNA array and RT-PCRn/aII19227510088
Boeri (53)Plasma/tissuesmiRNAmiRNA signatureDiagnosis15Lung cancermiRNA array and RT-PCR25III2025809085

NOTE: Data organized by year of publication, specimen type, and type of marker considered.

Abbreviations: ADC, adenocarcinoma; AUC, area under the curve; AutoAB, autoantibody; BM dev. phase, biomarker development phase; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; n/a, not available; qPCR, quantitative real-time PCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.

  • aValues derived from training set only.