Table 3.

Characteristics and performance of most recent sputum, EBC, and peripheral blood cells candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer

ReferencesSpecimensType of markerAnalyteClinical purposeNo. of markersPathologic subtypeAssay platformPreclinical samplesBM dev. phaseTraining setValidation setSensitivitySpecificityAUC
Palmisano (124)SputumDNA methylationp16, MGMTDiagnosis2SCCPCR11III144n/an/an/an/a
Belinsky (91)SputumDNA methylationp16, MGMT, DAP, RASSFIADiagnosis4NSCLCPCRn/aI141n/an/an/an/a
Varella-Garcia (125)SputumDNAChromosomal aneusomy + cytologyDiagnosis4Lung cancerFISH + cytology36III66n/a83a80an/a
Li (87)SputumDNAHYAL2, FHIT, SFTPCDiagnosis3NSCLCFISHn/aI102n/a76a92an/a
Yu (92)SputummiRNAmiR-21, miR-486, miR-375, miR-200bDiagnosis4NSCLCqRT-PCRn/aII72122708084
Showe (50)Peripheral blood cellsmRNAGene expression signatureDiagnosis29NSCLCcDNA arrayn/aII228557682n/a
Tanaka (126)Peripheral blood cellsCTCCTCsDiagnosis1NSCLCCell search systemn/aI150n/a30a88a60a
Phillips (77)EBCVOCsVOCs signatureDiagnosis22NSCLCGC-MSn/aI108n/a100a81an/a
Bajtarevic (79)EBCVOCsVOCs signatureDiagnosis50Lung cancerGC-MSn/aI9652–80a100an/a
Gessner (84)EBCProteinVEGF, bFGF, ANG, TNF-α, IL-8Diagnosis5NSCLCELISAn/aI74n/an/a99–100

NOTE: Data organized by year of publication, specimen type, and type of marker considered.

Abbreviations: ADC, adenocarcinoma; AUC, area under the curve; AutoAB, autoantibody; BM dev. phase, biomarker development phase; n/a, not available; qPCR, quantitative real-time PCR; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SCLC, small cell lung cancer.

  • aValues derived from training set only.