Table 2.

Expression of APC, β-catenin, E-cadherin, and the APC/β-catenin scorea in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa

Baseline6-Month follow-upAbsolute Rx effect
Treatment groupnMeanSEPnMeanSEPRx effectbSEPcRelative effectd
APC
Whole crypts
 Placebo221.090.08210.970.080.00..1.00
 Calcium231.070.080.90210.940.080.80–0.020.150.910.98
 Vitamin D230.900.080.10221.000.080.800.220.140.141.25
 Ca + vitamin D230.970.080.29210.910.080.610.060.150.681.06
Upper 40% of crypts
 Placebo220.390.04210.410.040.00..1.00
 Calcium230.400.040.91210.440.040.510.030.060.661.07
 Vitamin D230.300.040.07220.460.040.310.150.060.031.48
 Ca + vitamin D230.360.040.47210.410.040.390.040.060.581.10
Lower 60% of crypts
 Placebo220.680.05210.570.050.00..1.00
 Calcium230.700.050.81210.530.050.53–0.060.090.510.90
 Vitamin D230.600.050.24220.560.050.840.070.090.471.11
 Ca + vitamin D230.600.050.24210.520.050.490.030.090.731.04
Φhe
 Placebo220.350.01210.420.010.00..1.00
 Calcium230.340.010.06210.460.010.060.040.030.121.10
 Vitamin D230.310.010.10220.460.010.050.070.030.011.21
 Ca + vitamin D230.350.010.86210.440.010.300.010.030.641.03
β-Catenin
Whole crypts
 Placebo210.990.04180.980.040.00..1.00
 Calcium221.010.040.69190.850.050.04–0.150.080.080.85
 Vitamin D210.940.040.45210.820.040.03–0.110.080.180.88
 Ca + vitamin D221.040.040.38170.920.050.37–0.110.080.200.89
Upper 40% of crypts
 Placebo210.380.02180.370.020.00..1.00
 Calcium220.400.020.52190.330.020.07–0.060.030.060.85
 Vitamin D210.360.020.36210.330.020.12–0.020.030.610.95
 Ca + vitamin D220.390.020.69170.360.020.61–0.020.030.500.94
Lower 60% of crypts
 Placebo210.610.02180.620.030.00..1.00
 Calcium220.630.020.44190.560.020.11–0.080.050.090.87
 Vitamin D210.580.020.38210.540.020.02–0.050.050.270.91
 Ca + vitamin D220.630.020.58170.590.030.46–0.050.050.360.93
Φhe
 Placebo210.390.01180.380.010.00..1.00
 Calcium220.380.010.87190.360.010.16–0.010.010.310.97
 Vitamin D210.390.010.94210.380.010.810.000.010.801.01
 Ca + vitamin D220.380.010.88170.370.010.670.000.010.810.99
E-cadherin
Whole crypts
 Placebo211.130.12191.040.130.00..1.00
 Calcium211.230.120.69211.090.120.78–0.050.250.850.96
 Vitamin D210.820.120.05181.290.130.170.560.250.031.72
 Ca + vitamin D220.910.120.14191.260.130.230.460.250.081.51
Upper 40% of crypts
 Placebo210.440.05190.420.050.00..1.00
 Calcium210.470.050.70210.450.050.700.000.100.991.01
 Vitamin D210.330.050.09180.560.050.060.250.100.021.78
 Ca + vitamin D220.370.050.26190.550.050.090.200.100.051.56
Lower 60% of crypts
 Placebo210.640.07190.600.080.00..1.00
 Calcium210.690.070.68210.630.070.78–0.010.150.930.98
 Vitamin D210.480.070.12180.750.080.190.310.160.051.68
 Ca + vitamin D220.550.070.38190.700.080.390.190.150.231.35
Φhe
 Placebo210.410.02190.400.020.00..1.00
 Calcium210.410.020.92210.410.020.660.010.030.711.03
 Vitamin D210.400.020.61180.450.020.060.050.030.101.14
 Ca + vitamin D220.400.020.60190.460.020.010.070.030.031.18
APC/β-catenin score
 Placebo210.370.03180.440.030.00..1.00
 Calcium220.350.030.49180.580.030.0030.160.060.011.41
 Vitamin D210.360.030.83200.570.030.0040.130.060.021.31
 Ca + vitamin D220.370.030.84170.500.030.180.070.060.261.16
  • aAPC/β-catenin score = Φh APC/β-catenin expression in the whole crypt, where Φh APC = ratio of APC expression in the upper 40% of the crypts to the whole crypts.

  • bRx effect (treatment effect) = [(treatment group follow-up) − (treatment group baseline)] − [(placebo group follow-up) − (placebo group baseline)].

  • cP value for difference between each active treatment group and placebo group from repeated-measures MIXED model.

  • dRelative effect = [(treatment group follow-up)/(treatment group baseline)]/[(placebo follow-up)/(placebo baseline)]; interpretation similar to that for an OR (e.g., a relative effect of 1.7 indicates a 70% proportional increase in the treatment group relative to that in the placebo group).

  • eΦh = proportion of expression in the distribution zone (i.e., ratio of expression in upper 40% to expression in whole crypt).