Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of the study participantsa (n = 92)

Treatment group
PlaceboCalciumVitamin DCalcium + Vitamin D
Characteristics(n = 23)(n = 23)(n = 23)(n = 23)P valueb
Demographics, medical history, habits, anthropometrics
 Age, years58.5 (8.2)61.9 (8.2)60.2 (8.1)62.1 (7.5)0.39
 Men (%)707070701.00
 White (%)748365610.39
 College graduate (%)656157440.53
 History of CRC in first-degree relative (%)173017130.60
 Take NSAIDc regularlyd (%)22139220.60
 If woman (n = 28), taking estrogens (%)49441.00
 Current smoker (%)94000.61
 Take multivitamin (%)303026390.86
 BMI, kg/m230.6 (7.2)29.4 (5.5)28.9 (5.56)31.6 (6.0)0.44
Mean dietary intakese
 Total energy intake, kcal/d1,596 (528)1,788 (691)1,848 (821)1,845 (752)0.59
 Totalf calcium, mg/d6256787537330.75
 Totalf vitamin D, IU/d2793263484010.50
 Total fat, gm/d666661650.59
 Dietary fiber, gm/d151616150.97
 Alcohol intake, gm/d8101390.84
Total serum vitamin D
 25-OH-vitamin D, ng/mL20.4 (7.6)25.7 (7.6)21.0 (8.3)20.9 (9.7)0.12
  • aData are given as means (SD) unless otherwise specified.

  • bBy Fisher exact test for categorical variables, and ANOVA for continuous variables.

  • cNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  • dAt least once a week.

  • eAll nutrients energy adjusted using residual method.

  • fDiet plus supplements.