Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the participants

CharacteristicFolic acid group (n = 430)Control group (n = 430)P
Age (±SD), y60.79 ± 7.5360.26 ± 7.110.92
Male (%)50.92%49.75%0.85
Plasma folate, ng/mL5.045.560.09
Cigarette smoke
 Smoker19.3%15.35%0.15
 Ex-smoker2.79%1.86%0.49
Alcohol consumption
 Yes17.44%14.88%0.35
 Weekends only8.37%11.16%0.21
Tea consumption11.86%8.6%0.14
Coffee consumption3.72%5.81%0.20
Grain/cereals (±SD), g/d352.1 ± 8.7361.7 ± 10.60.75
Meat (±SD), g/d55.6 ± 3.159.3 ± 2.80.29
Fish (±SD), g/d104.7 ± 4.0110.4 ± 3.10.26
Citrus fruit
 Usually33.02%39.3%0.07
 Seldom2.56%1.86%0.64
Milk
 Usually53.72%48.14%0.12
 Seldom7.21%6.51%0.68
Leafy green vegetables (±SD), g/d85.7 ± 3.279.5 ± 4.90.53
Other vegetables (±SD), g/d143.2 ± 4.7135.6 ± 6.00.31
Soybean products (±SD), g/d113.5 ± 4.1110.7 ± 5.40.68