Table 2.

Difference in percent mammographic density (95% CI) by metabolic syndrome status and components of metabolic syndrome among premenopausal women stratified by state (ESMaestras, 2006)

Jalisco (N = 496)Veracruz (N = 293)
n (%) exposedAge-adjustedaMV-adjustedbMV-adjusted with BMIcn (%) exposedAge-adjustedaMV-adjustedbMV-adjusted with BMIc
Metabolic syndrome
Harmonized definition (waist ≥ 88 cm)196 (39.5)2.06 (−0.64 to 4.76)2.63 (−0.18 to 5.44)4.76* (1.72–7.81)61 (20.8)−5.28* (−9.1 to −1.45)−5.84* (−9.86 to −1.82)−2.91 (−7.19 to 1.38)
Harmonized definition (waist ≥ 80 cm)235 (47.4)2.71* (0.07–5.35)3.20* (0.44–5.96)4.79* (1.89–7.68)79 (27.0)−2.84 (−6.36 to 0.69)−2.72 (−6.40 to 0.95)−0.69 (−4.50 to 3.13)
Individual metabolic syndrome components
Abdominal obesity (waist ≥ 88 cm)284 (57.3)−3.94* (−6.54 to −1.34)−3.77* (−6.46 to −1.08)−2.89 (−6.36 to 0.57)146 (49.8)−4.74* (−7.83 to −1.64)−5.05* (−8.25 to −1.86)−1.13 (−5.24 to 2.98)
 Abdominal obesity (waist ≥ 80 cm)422 (85.1)−4.00* (−7.63 to −0.38)−3.59 (−7.45 to 0.26)−2.04 (−6.35 to 2.27)228 (77.8)−4.01* (−7.76 to −0.25)−3.72 (−7.61 to 0.17)0.20 (−4.28 to 4.68)
High fasting triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL)185 (37.3)1.25 (−1.44 to 3.93)1.41 (−1.37 to 4.2)2.06 (−0.77 to 4.88)81 (27.7)−1.03 (−4.55 to 2.49)−0.52 (−4.16 to 3.12)1.09 (−2.55 to 4.74)
Low HDL (<50 mg/dL)328 (66.1)3.30* (0.57–6.02)3.56* (0.73–6.39)4.62* (1.73–7.52)164 (56.0)−0.18 (−3.35 to 2.98)0.46 (−2.88 to 3.80)1.33 (−1.94 to 4.59)
High blood pressure (SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg)189 (38.1)1.04 (−1.73 to 3.81)1.24 (−1.63 to 4.11)1.60 (−1.28 to 4.47)60 (20.5)−2.06 (−5.98 to 1.86)−2.86 (−6.97 to 1.26)−2.33 (−6.39 to 1.74)
High fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL)76 (15.3)0.34 (−3.31 to 3.99)0.55 (−3.22 to 4.31)1.40 (−2.42 to 5.22)42 (14.3)−3.43 (−7.9 to 1.03)−2.97 (−7.72 to 1.79)−1.12 (−5.82 to 3.58)
 High fasting glucose (≥110 mg/dL)36 (7.3)1.42 (−3.67, 6.5)1.91 (−3.31 to 7.13)2.75 (−2.50 to 8.00)24 (8.2)−4.00 (−9.71 to 1.71)−2.49 (−8.44 to 3.45)−0.02 (−5.90 to 5.86)
  • aModel 1: adjusted for age at mammography (continuous).

  • bModel 2: Model 1 and family history of breast cancer (yes, no), history of BBD (yes, no), age at menarche (<12, 12, 13, 14+, unknown), hormonal contraceptive use (never, ever < 5, ever 5+), number of full-term pregnancies (nulliparous, 1, 2, 3, 4+), age at first pregnancy (nulliparous, <20, 20–24, 25–29, 30+), alcohol intake (none, <0.1, 0.1–0.2, 0.2+ drinks/d), smoking status (never, ever), and SES (low, medium, high).

  • cModel 3: Model 2 and BMI at mammogram (continuous).

  • *P < 0.05.