Table 4.

Association between powder use and risk of ovarian cancer by behavior and histology

Model 1aModel 2a
No powder useGenital powder useNo genital powder useGenital powder use
n (%)n (%)OR (95% CI)bn (%)n (%)OR (95% CI)b
Controls5,815 (59)2,511 (25)7,348 (75)2,511 (25)
 All borderline cases1,035 (58)504 (28)1.29 (1.14–1.48)1,247 (72)504 (28)1.30 (1.15–1.47)
 Serous567 (57)300 (30)1.46 (1.24–1.72)700 (70)300 (30)1.45 (1.24–1.69)
 Mucinous409 (60)184 (27)1.17 (0.96–1.42)502 (73)184 (27)1.19 (0.98–1.43)
All invasive cases3,470 (54)2,009 (31)1.21 (1.12–1.32)4,471 (69)2,009 (31)1.23 (1.14–1.32)
 Serous1,952 (53)1,197 (32)1.20 (1.09–1.32)2,519 (68)1,197 (32)1.24 (1.13–1.35)
 Mucinous206 (57)94 (26)1.09 (0.84–1.42)269 (74)94 (26)1.06 (0.82–1.36)
 Endometrioid568 (55)304 (30)1.22 (1.04–1.43)723 (70)304 (30)1.20 (1.03–1.40)
 Clear Cell327 (54)187 (31)1.24 (1.01–1.52)420 (69)187 (31)1.26 (1.04–1.52)
  • aIn model 1, the reference group is restricted to women with no powder use except for the DOV and SON studies as these did not collect data on non-genital powder use. The number of cases who reported non-genital powder use was 212 (13%) of all borderline cases, 133 (13%) serous borderline, 93 (14%) mucinous borderline, 1,001 (15%) of all invasive, 567 (15%) serous invasive, 63 (17%) mucinous invasive, 155 (15%) endometrioid invasive, 93 (15%) clear cell invasive. In model 2, the reference group includes all women who did not use genital powders (nonusers and non-genital users combined).

  • bORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression conditioned on 5-year age groups and adjusted for age (continuous), oral contraceptive duration (never use, <2, 2–<5, 5–<10, or ≥10 years), parity (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ children), tubal ligation history (no or yes), BMI (quartiles), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic White, Black, Asian, or other).