Table 3.

Association between powder use and risk of ovarian cancer (borderline and invasive combined) by study site

SiteControls (%) (N = 9,859)Cases (%) (N = 8,525)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)aMultivariate OR (95% CI)a
AUS
 No powder use305 (21)300 (21)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only486 (34)427 (30)0.85 (0.69–1.05)0.92 (0.74–1.14)
 Genital use658 (45)705 (49)1.04 (0.85–1.26)1.13 (0.92–1.38)
DOVb
 No powder use1,544 (83)1,293 (83)1.001.00
 Genital use297 (16)272 (17)1.14 (0.95–1.37)1.13 (0.93–1.36)
HAW
 No powder use489 (65)326 (68)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only154 (20)81 (17)0.79 (0.58–1.07)0.69 (0.50–0.96)
 Genital use112 (15)74 (15)0.99 (0.72–1.37)0.99 (0.70–1.41)
HOP
 No powder use989 (66)439 (60)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only184 (13)102 (14)1.23 (0.94–1.61)1.23 (0.93–1.62)
 Genital use316 (21)194 (26)1.37 (1.11–1.69)1.34 (1.07–1.67)
NCO
 No powder use391 (60)469 (60)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only137 (21)122 (16)0.75 (0.57–0.99)0.74 (0.56–0.99)
 Genital use122 (19)195 (25)1.33 (1.03–1.74)1.37 (1.05–1.80)
NEC
 No powder use1,239 (53)1,129 (49)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only454 (19)421 (18)1.02 (0.87–1.19)1.04 (0.88–1.22)
 Genital use636 (27)755 (33)1.30 (1.14–1.49)1.28 (1.12–1.47)
SONb
 No powder use364 (65)252 (56)1.001.00
 Genital use200 (35)197 (44)1.43 (1.11–1.85)1.35 (1.03–1.76)
USC
 No powder use494 (63)435 (56)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only118 (15)129 (17)1.25 (0.94–1.66)1.14 (0.85–1.52)
 Genital use170 (22)208 (27)1.39 (1.10–1.77)1.36 (1.06–1.74)
Pooledc
 No powder use5,815 (59)4,643 (54)1.001.00
 Non-genital use only1,533 (16)1,282 (15)0.98 (0.90–1.07)0.98 (0.89–1.07)
 Genital use2,511 (25)2,600 (31)1.25 (1.16–1.34)1.24 (1.15–1.33)
  • aStudy-specific estimates were determined using unconditional logistic regression and pooled ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression conditioned on 5-year age groups and study. Multivariate models are adjusted for age (continuous), oral contraceptive duration (never use, <2, 2–<5, 5–<10, or ≥10 years), parity (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ children), tubal ligation history (no or yes), BMI (quartiles), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic White, Black, Asian, or other).

  • bInformation on non-genital powder use was not collected in the SON and DOV study.

  • cP value for heterogeneity between multivariate study specific ORs equal to 0.61; calculated using Conchran's Q statistic test.