Table 2.

Unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection and overall oral health by sociodemographic and behavioral characteristicsa

CharacteristicsTotal unweighted counts (unweighted counts of HPV infection)% HPV-positive (95% CI)Unadjusted PRs (95% CI)Self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair, n (%)
Total3,439 (296)7.5 (6.0–9.3)3,439
Age, y
 30–39877 (70)6.4 (4.5–9.0)1282 (25.9)
 40–49951 (64)6.5 (4.8–8.8)1.02 (.60–1.73)344 (27.9)
 50–59823 (90)9.4 (6.5–13.4)1.47 (.84–2.56)309 (29.8)
 60–69788 (72)7.6 (5.4–10.6)1.19 (.75–1.89)267 (22.8)
P (P trend)0.171 (0.174)0.038 (0.039)
Sex
 Male1,713 (227)11.7 (9.0–15.1)3.51 (2.40–5.15)616 (28.9)
 Female1,726 (69)3.3 (2.5–4.5)1586 (25.2)
P<0.0010.030
Race/ethnicity
 Mexican American676 (54)8.1 (5.9–11.0)1.17 (.72–1.90)335 (48.3)
 Other Hispanic407 (36)8.7 (5.6–13.2)1.25 (.67–2.34)150 (34.4)
 White, non-Hispanic1,527 (115)6.9 (4.8–9.9)1423 (22.4)
 Black, non-Hispanic645 (83)11.3 (7.6–16.5)1.64 (.94–2.85)240 (36.1)
 Other race184 (8)5.0 (2.1–11.0)0.72 (.27–1.94)54 (26.7)
 P0.201<0.001
Education
 Less than high school956 (94)8.9 (7.2–10.9)1.38 (0.87–2.19)506 (48.6)
 High school or equivalent750 (79)9.3 (6.9–12.5)1.45 (1.01–2.07)285 (34.5)
 Some college or higher1,726 (123)6.4 (4.5–9.1)1409 (18.2)
P0.088<0.001
Income-to-poverty ratiob
 <1.0628 (81)12.2 (10.7–14.0)1.89 (1.20–2.98)325 (49.2)
 ≥1.0 to <2.0827 (77)8.6 (6.3–11.7)1.23 (0.71–2.16)363 (41.3)
 ≥2.0 to <3.0413 (31)7.0 (5.0–9.7)1.09 (0.77–1.53)137 (26.9)
 ≥3.01,237 (81)6.5 (4.2–9.8)1251 (18.1)
P (P trend)0.073 (0.062)<0.001 (<0.001)
Marital status
 Never married408 (41)9.4 (5.9–14.7)1160 (32.6)
 Married/living with partner2,278 (176)6.7 (5.0–8.9).72 (0.40–1.28)750 (25.4)
 Widowed/divorced/separated750 (79)9.4 (7.0–12.6)1.00 (0.55–1.82)291 (30.3)
P0.2410.031
Cigarette smokerc
 Never/former1,849 (106)5.2 (3.4–7.8)1554 (25.1)
 Current, ≤10 cigarettes/d446 (67)12.1 (8.7–16.4)2.34 (1.35–4.04)205 (41.7)
 Current, >10 cigarettes/d343 (52)14.7 (10.5–20.4)2.85 (1.80–4.53)194 (55.3)
P (P trend)<0.001 (<0.001)<0.001 (<0.001)
Alcohol use in past year, average, number of drinks/week
 0897 (78)8.4 (5.8–12.0)1362 (31.9)
 <1972 (59)5.1 (3.8–6.9)0.61 (.42–.88)315 (24.7)
 1–7831 (63)6.3 (4.9–8.1)0.75 (.55–1.02)252 (23.7)
 >7470 (66)12.5 (9.3–16.7)1.49 (1.12–1.98)180 (29.2)
P (P trend)0.002 (<0.001)0.009 (0.009)
Marijuana used
 Never1,185 (70)4.8 (3.6–6.2)1429 (28.1)
 Former944 (89)8.3 (5.7–11.9)1.75 (1.08–2.81)290 (23.8)
 Current243 (36)14.3 (10.4–19.4)3.01 (2.21–4.10)118 (42.7)
P (P trend)<0.001 (<0.001)0.001 (0.001)
Ever conducted oral sexe
 No665 (38)4.7 (3.0–7.2)1262 (31.8)
 Yes2,398 (224)8.0 (6.2–10.4)1.71 (0.99–2.97)799 (25.7)
P0.0400.011
Number of lifetime oral sex partnerse,f
 0665 (38)4.7 (3.0–7.2)1262 (31.8)
 1487 (21)3.5 (1.9–6.4)0.77 (0.34–1.76)172 (28.3)
 2–5925 (68)5.6 (4.2–7.5)1.20 (0.80–1.79)308 (25.5)
 6–10259 (30)10.5 (6.7–16.2)2.24 (1.06–4.73)84 (25.9)
 11–20154 (23)13.3 (7.6–22.3)2.84 (1.48–5.44)50 (26.8)
 ≥21135 (37)25.7 (14.6–41.3)5.50 (2.49–12.12)54 (33.7)
P (P trend)<.001 (<.001)0.353 (.355)
Number of oral sex partners in past yeare,f
 01,205 (73)4.8 (3.7–6.1)1462 (30.2)
 11,168 (103)8.3 (6.4–10.8)1.75 (1.34–2.30)354 (23.5)
 ≥2245 (38)13.0 (7.8–20.8)2.73 (1.52–4.90)111 (40.1)
P (P trend)0.001 (<0.001)0.010
Barrier use during oral sex in past yeare,g
 No oral sex in previous year622 (42)4.8 (3.2–7.1)0.53 (0.36–0.76)
 Never/rarely1,251 (127)9.2 (7.3–11.5)1
 Usually/always109 (13)14.2 (6.9–26.8)1.55 (0.84–2.9)
P0.005
Overall oral healthh
 Poor—fair1,202 (128)10.1 (8.2–12.4)1.56 (1.25–1.95)
 Good—excellent2,233 (167)6.5 (5.0–8.4)1
P<0.001
Think might have gum diseasei
 No2,750 (227)6.9 (5.4–8.7)1704 (18.8)
 Yes641 (66)10.4 (7.6–14.1)1.51 (1.13–2.01)461 (63.3)
P0.012<0.001
Used mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past 7 days j
 No1,477 (116)6.5 (5.1–8.2)1457 (23.5)
 Yes1,958 (179)8.3 (6.6–10.4)1.28 (1.07–1.52)744 (30.2)
P0.010<0.001
Number of teeth lostk
 0197 (19)8.1 (5.7–11.3)142 (16.5)
 1–2318 (27)6.6 (4.3–9.9)0.82 (0.46–1.45)92 (25.5)
 3–51,189 (72)6.2 (3.6–10.4)0.77 (0.38–1.60)261 (15.6)
 6–10837 (71)6.7 (5.1–8.9)0.84 (0.51–1.37)306 (29.6)
 ≥11766 (97)12.2 (9.4–15.7)1.51 (0.95–2.42)391 (54.8)
P (P trend)0.045 (0.035)<0.000 (<0.000)
  • aAnalyses were restricted to NHANES 2009–2010 surveyed participants ages 30 to 69 years whose data on oral HPV results and oral health (interview or examination sections) were available (n = 3,439).

  • bIndex for the ratio of family income-to-poverty threshold, specific to family size, year, and state. A value of 1 or less denotes a family income below the poverty threshold.

  • cCurrent smokers included those who had smoked a cigarette in the prior 30 days.

  • dCurrent marijuana users included those who had used it at least once in the prior 30 days.

  • eAnalyses were restricted to individuals ages 30­ to 59 years, for whom data on oral HPV, oral health, and oral sex were available.

  • fIncluded partners of both sexes.

  • gOriginal responses on a 4-point Likert scale were dichotomized.

  • hSelf-rating overall oral health was measured by the question, “Overall, how would you rate the health of your teeth and gums?” Original responses on a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 = excellent to 5 = poor, were dichotomized into poor–fair and good–excellent.

  • iRespondents were asked if they thought they might have a gum disease (based on signs of swollen gums, receding gums, sore or infected gums or loose teeth).

  • jRespondents were coded as “yes” if they reported more than 1 day of use.

  • kAnalysis was restricted to participants ages 30 to 69 years who underwent oral examination (n = 3,375) by registered dental hygienists. A tooth was counted as lost if it was recorded as “dental implant,” “tooth not present,” or “permanent dental root fragment present.”