Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the included studies

First author, referenceStudy setting; locationTime period; follow-upTotal no. of participantsNo. of gastric cancer (cardia/noncardia)Physical activity domainPhysical activity measurement; valid/reliableOutcome measurementVariables adjusted for
Cohort studies
Huerta et al. (14)Population; Europe (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition); 25- to 70-y-old men and womenRecruitment: 1992–2000; F/U: 8.8y420,449410; cardia 123, noncardia 188, unspecified 99Recreational + occupational (separate also)Self-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer Registries; health insurance records, cancer and pathology hospital registries, active F/U1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10
Leitzmann et al. (13)Population; USA (NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study); 50- to 71-y-old men and womenRecruitment: 1995–1996; F/U: 8y487,732642; cardia 313, noncardia 329RecreationalSelf-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer Registry1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Wannamethee et al. (30)Population; England (British Regional Heart Study); 40- to 59-y-old menRecruitment: 1978–1980; F/U 18.8y7,58859RecreationalSelf-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer Registry, death certificates, postal follow-up1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9
Yun et al. (32)Population; Korea (National Health Examination Program); >40-y-old menRecruitment: 1996; F/U 6y444,9633,633RecreationalSelf-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer registry1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11
Inoue et al. (16)Population; Japan (Japan Public Health Center); 40 to 69-y-men and womenRecruitment: 1990–1994; F/U 7.5y79,771853Recreational + occupationalSelf-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer Registries; Death certificate1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11
Sjodahl et al. (29)Population; Norway (Nord-Trondelag Health Study); >20-y-men and womenRecruitment: 1984–1986; F/U 15.4y73,133313; cardia 49, noncardia 264RecreationalSelf-administered questionnaire; noCentral Cancer Registry1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9
Severson et al. (33)Population; Hawaii (Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study); 46–68y old menRecruitment: 1965–1968; F/U8,006172Recreational (household) + occupational (separate also)Self-administered questionnaire; yesCentral Cancer Registry1, 2, 3, 5
Case–control studies
Boccia et al. (24)Hospital based; Turkey1999–200532974RecreationalInterviewer-administered questionnaire; noMedical recordsNone
Brownson et al. (34)Cancer Registry; USA; >20-y-men1984–198917,147 (all cancer patients)358OccupationalJob title based; noCentral Cancer Registry1, 2, 3, 5
Campbell et al. (25)Population; Canada (Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study—only Ontario); 20- to 74-y-old men and women1995–19971,932545; cardia 144, noncardia 401Recreational (lifetime strenuous)Self-administered questionnaire; noCentral Cancer Registry with independent validation1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9
Campbell 2 et al. (25)Population; Canada (Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study—seven provinces, not Ontario); 20 to 74-y-old men and women1995–19973,736636Recreational (recent strenuous)Self-administered questionnaire; noCentral Cancer Registry with independent validation1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9
Dosemeci et al. (26)Hospital based; Turkey; men (no females with cancers)1979–19845,613 (90% controls with nongastric cancers)224OccupationalJob-title based; noMedical records1, 2, 5, 9
Huang et al. (27)Hospital based; Japan (hospital-based Epidemiological Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center); >18-y-old men1988–199852,6941988RecreationalInterviewer-administered questionnaire; noMedical records1, 2, 8
Parent et al. (28)Population; Canada; 35 to 70-y-old men1979–1985784251Recreational + occupational (separate also)Interviewer-administered questionnaire; noCentral Cancer Registry, with independent validation1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9
Vigen et al. (15)Population; USA; 30 to 74-y-old men and women1992–19971,983653; cardia 264, noncardia 389OccupationalJob title based; noCentral Cancer Surveillance Program1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9
Wen et al. (31)Hospital based; China2008–2010900300RecreationalInterviewer-administered questionnaire; noMedical records1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

NOTE: 1, age; 2, sex; 3 obesity (body mass index, weight), 4, race/ethnicity; 5, smoking; 6, alcohol, 7, dietary factors; 8, family history of gastric cancer; 9, education and socioeconomic status; 10, H. pylori; 11, diabetes.