Table 4.

Dose–response effect of kava and different kava fractions on lung tumor incidence and multiplicity induced by NNK in A/J mice

Lung tumors
GroupNumber of mice at termination (initiation)Body weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)Liver weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)% of mice with tumorsTumors/mouse (mean ± SD)Reduction in tumor multiplicity (%)Pa
1 (untreated control)5 (5)24.3 ± 2.71.08 ± 0.17200.2 ± 0.4
2 (carcinogen control)25 (25)23.5 ± 1.90.94 ± 0.1510016.0 ± 5.2
3 (kava at 5 mg/g diet)15 (15)24.0 ± 3.41.00 ± 0.13130.1 ± 0.4100<0.01
4 (kava at 2.5 mg/g diet)15 (15)23.3 ± 2.01.00 ± 0.12270.3 ± 0.599.4<0.01
5 (kava at 1.25 mg/g diet)15 (15)23.1 ± 1.50.89 ± 0.09200.2 ± 0.4100<0.01
6 (fraction A at 2.5 mg/g diet)15 (15)23.3 ± 2.61.00 ± 0.1010012.0 ± 5.025.3<0.01
7 (fraction B at 2.5 mg/g diet)15 (15)23.4 ± 2.90.97 ± 0.1070.1 ± 0.5100<0.01
8 (fraction C at 2.5 mg/g diet)15 (15)22.7 ± 2.20.95 ± 0.11933.5 ± 2.570.2<0.01

NOTE: Female A/J mice in groups 2 to 8 were treated with NNK (100 and 67 mg/kg body weight on day 7 and day 14 respectively) in 0.1 mL saline via intraperitoneal injection. The mice were maintained on AIN-93G diet until day 21 and then shifted to AIN-93M diet for the duration of the experiment. Kava modality treatment was between day 1 and day 14.

  • aCompared with group 2 by the Dunnett test.