Table 3.

Effect of bolus kava via daily gavage on lung tumor incidence and multiplicity induced by NNK in A/J mice

Lung tumors
GroupNumber of mice at termination (initiation)Body weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)Liver weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)% of mice with tumorsTumors/mouse (mean ± SD)Reduction in tumor multiplicity (%)Pa
1 (untreated control)5 (5)24.1 ± 4.41.05 ± 0.17200.2 ± 0.4
2 (carcinogen control)5 (5)22.9 ± 3.30.92 ± 0.1410016.6 ± 3.1
3 (20 mg kava daily day 6–day 15)5 (5)21.7 ± 1.60.93 ± 0.12400.4 ± 0.598.8<0.01
4 (20 mg kava daily day 6–8 and 13–15)5 (5)21.7 ± 1.70.89 ± 0.0800.0 ± 0.0100<0.01

NOTE: Female A/J mice in groups 2 to 4 were treated with NNK (100 and 67 mg/kg body weight on day 7 and day 14 respectively) in 0.1 mL saline via intraperitoneal injection. The mice were maintained on AIN-93G diet until day 21 and then shifted to AIN-93M diet for the duration of the experiment. The mice were given cottonseed oil (0.2 mL) via gavage once a day or kava (20 mg) in cottonseed oil (0.2 mL) on the specified days.

  • aCompared with group 2 by the Dunnett test.