Table 1.

Effect of different kava treatment schedules on lung tumor incidence and multiplicity induced by NNK in A/J mice at 119-day endpoints

Lung tumors
GroupNumber of mice at termination (initiation)Body weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)Liver weight at termination (mean ± SD g/mouse)% of mice with tumorsTumors/mouse (mean ± SD)Reduction in tumor multiplicity (%)Pa
1 (untreated control)10 (10)26.8 ± 2.71.24 ± 0.18100.1 ± 0.3
2 (carcinogen control)40 (40)23.4 ± 2.21.01 ± 0.1010017.5 ± 4.8
3 (kava day 1–day 14)15 (15)22.9 ± 1.51.04 ± 0.09330.3 ± 0.598.9<0.01
4 (kava day 1–day 21)15 (15)23.1 ± 1.71.04 ± 0.11130.2 ± 0.699.4<0.01
5 (kava day 1–day 119)15 (15)21.9 ± 1.91.09 ± 0.16330.3 ± 0.598.9<0.01
6 (kava day 15–day 119)15 (15)22.6 ± 2.61.02 ± 0.1210013.3 ± 4.324.1<0.05
7 (kava day 15–day 28)15 (15)23.7 ± 1.81.06 ± 0.0910015.3 ± 5.412.7>0.05
8 (kava day 22–day 119)15 (15)21.3 ± 2.11.03 ± 0.1010016.1 ± 6.39.2>0.05
9 (kava day 29–day 119)15 (15)21.4 ± 1.11.03 ± 0.1110015.8 ± 6.210.1>0.05

NOTE: Female A/J mice in groups 2 to 9 were treated with NNK (100 and 67 mg/kg body weight on day 7 and day 14, respectively) in 0.1 mL saline via intraperitoneal injection. Mice were maintained on AIN-93G diet until day 21 and then shifted to AIN-93M diet for the duration of the experiment. Kava dose was 5 mg/g of diet.

  • aCompared with group 2 by the Dunnett test.