Table 4.

PAFs of any-site and site-specific cancer when adhering to public health recommendations, E3N cohort (N = 64,732)

PAF for each single characteristica
SmokingBMIAlcohol consumptionFruit and vegetable consumptionPhysical activityPAF for the five combined characteristicsb
All-type cancer (N = 6,938)1.3 (−1.8 to 4.4)1.4 (−0.5 to 3.4)3.2 (0.7–5.7)1.5 (−0.8 to 3.8)0.0 (−2.8 to 2.8)6.3 (2.2–10.3)
Breast cancer (N = 3,483)
 Premenopausal (N = 609)2.0 (−5.2 to 9.3)6.3 (−9.9 to −2.6)2.1 (−3.4 to 7.6)2.5 (−3.0 to 8.0)−1.0 (−7.4 to 5.3)−2.3 (−12.0 to 7.5)
 Postmenopausal (N = 2,874)−2.6 (−7.0 to 1.8)−0.3 (−3.2 to 2.6)5.2 (1.6–8.9)2.4 (−0.5 to 5.6)−0.8 (−4.8 to 3.3)6.3 (0.5–12.1)
Nonbasal skin cancer (N = 686)−4.5 (−14.1 to 5.3)−2.0 (−8.0 to 4.1)−3.6 (−11.5 to 4.3)−0.6 (−7.8to 6.5)−10.6 (−19.4 to −1.7)21.5 (−34.6 to7.5)
Colorectal cancer (N = 481)7.0 (−5.0 to 18.8)1.0 (−6.3 to 8.2)6.6 (−2.9 to 16.0)5.1 (−4.1 to 14.1)−5.0 (−15.5 to 5.6)12.8 (−2.4 to 27.4)
Hematopoietic cancer (N = 411)−0.7 (−13.2 to 11.8)8.6 (0.2–16.9)−1.0 (−10.9 to 9.0)−4.6 (−13.3 to 4.0)−2.9 (−14.3 to 8.6)−6.7 (−23.6 to 10.6)
Digestivec cancer (N = 274)3.9 (−11.7 to 19.3)6.1 (−3.8 to 15.9)2.5 (−10.6 to 15.4)1.7 (−9.5 to 12.8)2.0 (−12.3 to 16.3)12.1 (−8.4 to 31.6)
Endometrial cancer (N = 270)0.7 (−15.6 to 17.0)13.3 (3.7–22.5)9.8 (−3.1 to 22.3)1.6 (−10.3 to 13.5)2.9 (−11.9 to 17.6)15.0 (−5.8 to 34.6)
Thyroid cancer (N = 267)−3.6 (−18.1 to 11.0)4.6 (−6.0 to 15.1)−7.8 (−19.7 to 4.2)1.2 (−10.0 to 12.4)3.0 (−11.3 to 17.1)−7.5 (−28.7 to 14.4)
Ovarian cancer (N = 248)4.5 (−11.6 to 20.3)7.2 (−3.5 to 17.8)−0.6 (−13.9 to 12.8)0.5 (−11.4 to 12.3)4.7 (−10.4 to 19.6)2.9 (−18.8 to 24.3)
Lung cancer (N = 213)41.8 (24.8–56.3)−5.7 (−16.6 to 5.4)1.2 (−14.2 to 16.5)5.4 (−8.5 to 19.1)22.5 (6.3–37.5)47.5 (26.8–64.1)

NOTE: Bold values signify P-values < 0.05.

  • aIndividual PAFs estimated the percentage of cancer cases that would be prevented if all women had entirely adhered to one single health recommendation (individual score of 1 for the health behavior), adjusted for level of education, residence, first-degree family history of any cancer, professional activity, use of oral contraceptives, menopausal status and use of menopausal hormone therapy, age at menarche, number of children and age at first full-term pregnancy, and the four other characteristics. Analyses on premenopausal breast cancer were not adjusted for menopausal status or use of menopausal hormone therapy. Analyses of postmenopausal breast cancers were not adjusted for menopausal status.

  • bPercentage of cancer cases that would be prevented if all women had followed a healthy lifestyle (health index between 4.5 and 5), adjusted for all above variables, except the five lifestyle characteristics.

  • cNoncolorectal digestive cancers included cancers of the pancreas, stomach, liver, biliary tract, esophagus, and small bowel.