Table 2.

Association of high-frequency overmethylation with the risk for gastric cancer stratified by the extent of gastric atrophy

Number of cases with high-frequency overmethylationa
Gastric cancerAll noncancer controlsOR (95% CI)bH. pylori–positive controlsOR (95% CI)b
Antrum
Total cases63/102 (62)95/226 (42)2.5 (1.5–4.2)62/114 (54)1.8 (0.9–3.2)
 No atrophic change0/03/19 (16)1/4 (25)
 Closed type33/57 (58)77/176 (44)2.0 (1.0–3.7)51/91 (57)1.5 (0.7–3.2)
 Open type30/45 (67)15/31 (48)2.3 (0.9–6.1)10/19 (53)2.0 (0.6–6.0)
  EGC17/26 (65)15/31 (48)2.2 (0.7–6.7)10/19 (53)0.5 (0.2–1.8)
  AGC13/19 (68)15/31 (48)2.3 (0.7–7.9)10/19 (53)0.5 (0.1–1.9)
Body
Total cases66/102 (65)62/226 (27)4.5 (2.7–7.7)40/114 (35)3.4 (1.8–6.1)
 No atrophic change0/00/19 (0)0/4 (0)
 Closed type26/57 (46)49/176 (28)2.2 (1.2–4.2)32/91 (35)1.7 (0.8–3.5)
 Open type40/45 (89)13/31 (42)13.4 (3.8–46.8)8/19 (42)12.7 (3.2–49.8)
  EGC24/26 (92)13/31 (42)18.8 (3.5–99.6)8/19 (42)17.7 (3.1–101.7)
  AGC16/19 (84)13/31 (42)8.3 (1.9–36.5)8/19 (42)7.9 (1.6–37.9)

NOTE: Data are n/N (%) unless otherwise stated.

Abbreviations: AGC, advanced gastric cancer; EGC, early gastric cancer.

  • aTwo or more overmethylated genes among the LTR-adjacent genes, and one or more overmethylated genes in both the Alu-adjacent gene group and the stomach-specific gene group.

  • bAdjusted for age and sex.