Table 2.

Acquired characteristics of premalignant and malignant lesions

CharacteristicPremalignantMalignant
Genetic abnormalitiesFewNumerous
Suppressor genesSemiactive growth suppressionShut off or fully autonomous
Growth signalsHomeostatic, semidependentParacrine, autocrine, or fully autonomous
Stem and progenitor cellsSemiexpanded populationExpanded population, enhanced chemoresistance
ApoptosisSemifunctionalDysfunctional, ineffective
Invasion statusNoninvasive lesionEnhanced motility, invasion, and metastatic potential
Basement membraneIntactBreached
Cell morphologyHyperplasia, dysplasiaAnaplasia
AngiogenesisSemiactiveSustained dysfunction