Table 1.

Examples of nanoparticle targeting approaches in preclinical or clinical studies

Nanoparticle typeActive agentTumorClinical trialDeliveryTargetEffectRef
Liposomes (lipid)
 ONC-TCS liposomeVincristine sulfateHuApprovedi.v.Non-Hodgkin lymph.Improved TI(39)
 DepoCyt liposomeCytarabine ara-CHuPhase IIIi.v.Lymphomatous meningitisHigh resp, QOL(40)
 Myocet liposomeDoxorubicin citrateHuApprovedi.v.Metastatic breast cancerImproved TI(37)
 DaunoXome liposomeDaunorubicinHuApprovedi.v.AIDS-related KSSkin necrosis(38)
Liposomes (PEGylated/lipid)
 Lipoplat-PEG-DSPECisplatinHuPhase Ii.v.Stage IV carcinomasNephrotoxicity(43)
 Doxil PEG-lipoDoxorubicinHuApprovedi.v.AIDS-related KSBMT(42)
 Thermodox PEG-LSDoxThermo-bubbleHuPhase IIIi.v.Liver, breast cancerImproved TI(41)
 NDC PEG-lipoDoxcurcumin compHuPreclinicali.v.Prostate cancer-PC3ACardiotoxicity(44)
siRNA liposomes
 ALN-TTR01 & 2siRNA transthyretinHuPhase Ii.v.Transthyretin amyloidosisTransthyretin(45)
 ALN-PCSsiRNA kexin type 9HuPhase Ii.v.Fam. hypercholesterolemiaLDL cholesterol(46)
Albumin-bound nanoparticles
 Abraxane Albumin-drugPaclitaxelHuApprovedi.v.Metastatic breast cancerImproved TI(48)
Polymeric nanoparticles
 PolyDL-lactide-PEGPaclitaxelHuPhase IIi.v.ARMToxicity, OC(50)
 Oncaspar PEG-L-asparl-asparaginaseHuApprovedi.v.ALLRemission(49)
 DACHPlat poly prodrugHuPhase IIi.v.Ovarian cancerTolerability, OC(51)
 BIND-014 PNDocetaxelHu MoPhase IIi.v.Animal tumors, PK-humanPSA-targeted(52)
Chitosan
 Microcryst chitosanAbsorb GI fatHuApprovedOralHigh LDL cholesterolLDL cholosterol(53)
 Glycated chitosanLaser immunothermHuPhase Ii.v.Metastatic breast cancerImproved RR(55)
 ChitosanPlasmid DNAMoPreclinicalOralPIAImproved RR(56)
 ExChitosansiRNAMoPreclinicalNasalInhibit gene expressionReduce EGFP XP(54)
 Chitosan RGD-CH-NPsiRNA-periostin IntMoPreclinicali.v.Periostin ovarian tumorsDecrease T. size(12)
Fullerenes
 C60(OH)24DoxorubicinRaPreclinicali.p.MNU induced rat tumorsDec hepato-tox(58)
 C60-PEI-folateDocetaxelMoPreclinicali.v.Sarcoma S180 Balb/cDecrease T. size(63)
 C60-HyaluronateNAHu MoPreclinicali.v.HCT-116Decrease T. size(59)
Nanotubes
 PEG-SWNTsTNFR-(GITR)MoPreclinicali.v.B16 melanomaIntratumor Tregs(61)
 NGR-SWNTs-2MEPaclitaxel, taxolHuPreclinicali.v.MCF-7Decrease T. size(62)
 SWNT-lipid-PTX2-methox estradiolMoPreclinicali.v.Sarcoma (S180) Balb/cDecrease T. size(57)
 O-MWNTs-PEG-ANGDoxorubicinRa/MoPreclinicali.v.C6 glioma/Balb/cDecrease T. size(60)
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles
 C-dots124I-RGDY-PEGHu MoPhase Ii.v.αvβ3 Integrin–melanomaReal-time imaging(64)
 Mag-Dye@MSNFluores, magneticRaPreclinicali.v.Rat tumorsTumor imaging(66)
 MSV/EphA2siRNA EphA pacHuPreclinicali.v.Ovarian tumorDecrease T. size(65)
Quantum dots
 QD-800Anti-EGFRvIIIHuPreclinicali.v.GlioblastomaTumor imaging(67)
 QD-MUC1-DOXDoxorubicinHuPreclinicali.p.Human ovarianTumor imaging(69)
 QD-antiVEGFR2AntiVGFR2HuPreclinicali.v.Human PC3 prostateTumor imaging(68)
Metal nanoparticles
 Gold, AuNPsGold photo-activ.RaPreclinicalCranF98 glioma-bearing ratsTumor imaging(71)
 Immuno-magneticEpCAM MbHuPreclinicalCTCIdentify CTCsCTCs in BrCa(72)
 Gold, AuNPEMT targetHuPreclinicali.p.Ovarian cancerDecrease T. size(70)
 Gold, AuNP-TNFTNFαHuPreclinicali.v.Prostate cancerImproved therapy(73)

Abbreviations: ALL, acute lymphocytic leukemia; ARM, advanced refractory malignancy; BMT, bone marrow toxicity; BrCa, breast cancer; CTC, circulating tumor cell; DACH, diaminocyclohexadine; Hu, human; KS, Kaposi sarcoma; LS, liposomes; MDR, multidrug resistance; Mo, mouse; MWNT, multiwall nanotubes; OC, outcome; PIA, peanut-induced allergy; PN, polynanoparticle; QD, quantum dot; QOL, quality of life; Ra, rat; RR, response rate; SWNT, single wall nanotubes; TI, therapeutic index.