Table 1.

Demographic, lifestyle factors, plasma concentrations of micronutrients, and the degree of HPV 16m by case status (N = 315)

Risk factorsCase (n = 90)Non-case (n = 225)P
Age, y<2339 (43%)102 (45%)0.75
≥2351 (57%)123 (55%)
RaceCaucasian American57 (63%)129 (57%)0.33
African American33 (37%)96 (43%)
EducationHigh school education or higher66 (73%)165 (75%)0.71
Less than high school education24 (27%)54 (25%)
Waist circumference, cm≤8854 (60%)117 (54%)0.33
>8836 (40%)100 (46%)
Smoking statusNever smoker27 (30%)93 (42%)0.05
Ever smoker63 (70%)130 (58%)
Lifetime number of sexual partners≤544 (52%)97 (46%)0.30
>540 (48%)115 (54%)
Use of oral/hormone contraceptiveNon-user12 (13%)34 (16%)0.61
User78 (87%)184 (84%)
Folate, ng/mL<14.2950 (56%)102 (47%)0.17
≥14.2939 (44%)113 (53%)
Vitamin B12, pg/mL<406.5849 (55%)102 (48%)0.24
≥406.5840 (45%)112 (52%)
Vitamin C, μg/mL<12.3839 (44%)113 (53%)0.17
≥12.3850 (56%)102 (47%)
Total carotene, μg%<83.5947 (53%)101 (48%)0.41
≥83.5942 (47%)111 (52%)
Median HPV 16m, %
Promoter site9.811.50.03
Enhancer site8.012.0<0.01
Promoter and enhancer site combined10.611.6<0.01