Table 1.

Natural source, pharmacologic action, and molecular targets of promising natural compounds

CompoundNatural sourceMode of actionType of cancersSynergisticMajor targets
Flavonoids
 HonokiolMagnolia officinalis, Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia spp.Antioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antiangiogenesis, antiautophagy, immunomodulation, anticancer, gastrointestinal disorders, cough, anxiety, and allergiesGlioblastoma, melanoma, gastric, leukemia, skin, colon, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, hepatocellular, colorectal, lung, prostate, human renal mesangial, head and neck squamous carcinomaFluconazole, Epigallocatechi n gallate (EGCG), TNFαCDK1⊥, Bcl-2↓, Bax↑, cyclin D1↓, pAKT↓, γ-secretase activity↓, γ-secretase complex proteins↓, PPAR-γ⊥, COX-2⊥, NF-κB⊥, EGFR/P13K/AKt↓; JunB ↓ and JunD↓ caspase-8↑, caspase-9↑, caspase-3↑, PARP↑, p53↑, CD31 staining↓, LH↑, p38⊥, NF-κB⊥, Bcl-XL↓, Bad↑, cyclin E↓, (Cdk2 and Cdk4)↓, Cdk↑, p21 and p27↑, NF-κB↓, Bcl-2↓, Mcl-1↓, surcivin↓, VEGF↓, STAT3⊥, HG-induced IL1β⊥, IL18⊥, TNFα⊥, -PGE2⊥, NO⊥, and TGFβ1⊥, MCP-1⊥, MIP-1α⊥, EGFR targeting TKI⊥, Akt⊥ erlotinib⊥, EGFR signaling⊥, MAPK⊥, cyclin D1⊥
 MagnololMagnolia officinalis, Magnolia obovata.Antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), immunomodulation, anticancer, antianxiety, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effectsGlioblastoma, bladder, breast, colon, gastric, skin, ovarian, lung, prostate, melanoma, liver cancer, cervical epitheloid carcinoma, leukemia, fibrosarcoma, neuroblastoma, thyroid carcinomaTNFα, curcuminp21/Cip1↑, p27/Kip1↑, Hypoxia⊥, HIF1α↑, VEGF↑, AMPK↑, Bcl2↓, Bax↑, p53↑, Bax/Bcl-2↑, caspase-3↑, cyclin B1↓, cyclin A↓, CDK-4↓, Cdc2↓, Cip↑, caspase-8↑, PARP↑, NF-κB↓, HER2↓, PI3K/Akt↓, Bad↑, Bcl-X(S)↑, Bcl-X(L)↓, MMP-2↓, MMP-9↓, caspase-3, -9↑, ERK↑, Raf-1↑, Ca(2+)↑, Cyto-c↑, bcl-2↓, LTC4⊥, LTB4⊥, IgE⊥, cPLA2⊥, 5-LO⊥, MMP-9⊥, Ca(2+)↑, caspase-7↑, ADP- ribose↓, phosphatase↑
 JaceosidinArtemisia princeps, Artemisia iwayomogi, Artemisia argyi, Artemisia copa, Artemisia vestita, Saussurea medusa, Eupatorium arnottianum, Eupatorium lindleyanum, Centaurea phyllocephala, Centaurea nicaeensis, Nipponanthemum nipponicum, Arnica chamissonis, Arnica Montana, Vervain officinalis, Lantana montevidensis, Eriodictyon californicumAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammationHuman endometrial, human ovary cancer, glioblastoma, breast, epithelial, prostate, cervical, mammary epithelialTNFαCdc2↓, cyclin B1↓, complex⊥, caspase-9↑, MMP↓, p53↑, Bax↑, COX-2↑, MMP-9↑, TPA⊥, protein E6 and E7⊥, p53⊥, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, caspase-3↑, p53↑, p21↑, ERK1/2⊥
 CasticinVitex rotundifolia, V. agnus castus, V. trifolia, V. negundo, Daphne genkwa, Achillea millefolium, Ficus microcarpa, Fructus viticis, Crataegus pinnatifida, Pavetta crassipes, Nelsonia canescens, Citrus unshu, Centipeda minima, Clausena excavate, Croton betulaster, Artemisia abrotanum L., Camellia sinensisAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), premenstrual syndrome, Anti-inflammation, antianxiety, immunomodulation, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antifungal propertiesCervical, pancreatic, colon, breast, lung, gastric, ovarian, liver, colorectal, leukemia, prostateTRAIL, TNFα, cisplatin, curcuminJNK, Bcl-2↓, Bcl-xL↓, XIAP↓, caspase-3↑, caspase-9↑, cyclin B1↓, Bax↑, TNF↓, DR5↑, MMP2↓, MMP9↓, NF-κB↓, STAT3↓, FOXO3a↓, FoxM1↓, CDK1↓, cdc25B↓, cyclin B↓, p27KIP1↑, cyclin A↓, cFLIP↓, survivin↓, cytochrome c↑, Bid↑
Sesquiterpenes
 CostunolideInula helenium, Saussurea lappa, Magnolia grandifloraAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungalLiver, ovarian, breast, bladder, melanoma, leukemia, prostate, human monocyte, gastric, colorectalTNFα, taxol, cisplatinBcl-2↓, caspase-3↑, -8↑, and -9↑, Bax↑, Fas↑, Cdc2↓, cyclin B1↓; p21WAF1↑, procaspase-8↑, procaspase-3↑; JNK↑; PI3-K; PKC; ERK↑, NF-κB↓, cyclin E↓; p21↑, VEGF↓
 ParthenolideTanacetum parthenium., Tanacetum vulgare, Centaurea ainetensis, Tanacetum larvatum, Helianthus Annuus, Anvillea radiate, Magnolia kobus, Magnolia virginiana, Magnolia ovate, Magnolia grandiflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, Michelia, Magnolia champaca, Michelia floribunda, Tsoongiodendron odorum, Artemisia ludoviciana, Calea zacatechichi, Polymnia maculate, Achillea falcataAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antiangiogenesis, autophagy, immunomodulation, and cytotoxic effectsBreast, skin, melanoma, malignant glioma, epidermal tumorigenesis, liver, gastric, lung, bladder, prostate, bile duct carcinomas, pancreatic, myeloma, leukemia, colorectal, Burkitt lymphoma, epithelial ovarian, osteosarcomaTTRAIL, gemcitabin, taxol, TNFα, cisplatin, curcumin, okadaic acid, geldanamycin, buthionine sulfoximineBax↑, Bcl2↓, mRNA↓ metalloproteinase-9↓, STAT3⊥, JNK↑, VEGF⊥, IL8⊥, ABCB5 transporter↓, Bcl-X(L)↓, survivin↓, cyclin D1↓, IL8↓ matrix metalloproteinase 9↓, Akt phosphorylation↓, NF-κB↓, p65/NF-κB↓, Ki67↓, p21↑, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cystein⊥, glutathione S-transferase↓ STAT3⊥, JAK⊥, tBid↑ of caspase-3/8/9↑, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase⊥, p-ERK↑, p-p38↑, p38 and SAPK/JNK↑, PKC-alpha⊥, procaspase-3↓, p65↓, VEGF⊥, IL6 mRNA⊥, IkappaB-alpha↑, p53↑, ROS↑, JNK↑, Bid↑
 AlantolactoneInula helenium, L., Inula japonica Aucklandia lappa, Radix inulae Inula racemosaAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, antifungal, oxidoreductase, and antiproliferativeProstate, glioblastoma, colon, leukemia, liver, lungBax/Bcl-2↑, caspase-3↑, STAT3⊥, caspase-8, MMP↓, Bid↑, NF-κB/p65↓, p53↑, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, caspase-9↑, caspase-3↑, ADP-ribose↓, NF-κB⊥, ROS↑, activin/SMAD3 signaling↑, Cripto-1/ActRII⊥, ROS↑, cytochrome-c↑, Bax↑, PARP↓, ADP-ribose↓, NF-κB⊥, DNA-binding↓, IκBα phosphorylation↓, p21↑, Bcr/Abl↓, P-glycoprotein↓, cyclin B1↓, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-1↓
 IsoalantolactoneInula helenium, L., Inula japonica Aucklandia lappa, Radix inulae Inula racemosaAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, antifungal, oxidoreductase, and antiproliferativeProstate gastric pancreatic leukemiap38↑, MAPK↑, Bax↑, and cleaved caspase-3↑, Bcl-2↓, PI3K/Akt⊥, PARP↑
Diterpenoids
 OridoninIsodon rubescensAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, autophagy, and immunomodulationBreast, astrocytoma, leukemia, lung, hepatoma, prostate, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian, human multiple myeloma, human histocytic lymphoma, hepatocellular, cervical, neuroblastoma, laryngeal, gastric, murine fibrosarcoma, melanoma, epidermoid carcinoma, osteosarcomaTRAIL, gemcitabin, taxol, TNFα, cisplatin, curcumin, arsenic trioxide (As2O3), WogoninCaspase-8↓, NF-κB (p65)↓, IKKα↓, IKKβ↓, phospho-mTOR↓, Fas↑, PPARγ↑, MMP-2/MMP-9↓, β1/FAK⊥, caspase-3↑, LYN⊥, ABL⊥, Akt/mTOR↓, Raf/MEK/ERK↓ and STAT5↓, AML1-ETO↓, c-Kit(+)⊥, c-Met-NF-κB-COX-2↑, c-Met-Bcl-2-caspase-3, Bcl-2/Bax ratio↑, AVOs↓, LC3-I⊥, LC3-II⊥, P21↑, FAS⊥, SREBP1⊥, AP-1↓, NF-κB↓, P38↓, p21↑, p27↑, p16↑, c-myc p38↑, p53↑, (MAPK)-p38, cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 (T161)↓, p53↑, Akt↓, ROS↓, SIRT1↓, NF-κB↑, caspase-1↑, IL1β↑, XIAP↓, Grp78↑, α-CP1↓, Bcl-2↓, caspase-8↑, procaspase-3-9↓, pro-TNFα↑, p53↓, caspase-9↓, DeltaPsim↓, ERK↓, p38↑, MAPK↑, JNK↑
 Pseudolaric Acid BPseudolarix kaempferiAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), immunomodulation, anticancer and anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenesis effectsMicrovessel endothelial, prostate, glioblastoma, umbilical vein endothelial, murine fibrosarcoma, bladder, colon, lung, breast, melanoma, ovarian, leukemia, gastric, liverTaxol, TNFαNF-kB⊥, p65⊥, IL2↓, IkB-α⊥, cyclin B1↑, CDK1↑, cyclin D1↓ p53↑, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, 1α and cyclin E↓, cdc2↑, cdc2↓, survivin↓, caspase-3↑, COX-2⊥, STAT3, I-κB↓, Tubulin, binding of colchicine to tubulin⊥, bcl-x(L) ⊥, NAG-1↑, JNK↑, ERK↓, Wee1 kinase and p21↑, Bcl-xL↓, Bax↑, caspase-7↑, Fas/APO-1↑, Bcl-2 binding with Beclin 1⊥, Akt phosphorylation↓
Polyphenolic
 WedelolactoneEclipta alba, Wedelia calandulaceae, Wedelia chinensis, Eclipta prostrataAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, and hepatoprotective effectsBreast, prostate, neuroblastoma, pancreatic, mammary carcinosarcoma, myeloma, leukemia, adenoma, gliomaIFNγNF-κB↓, PARP↑, IIα↓, p-p53↑, caspase-3↑, caspase-7↑, c-JNK↑, PKCε↓, IKKα↓, Bax↑, Bcl- xL↓, p21↑, p27↑, Bcl-2↓, IL6↓, IL6R↓, c-myc, IKK↓, p-TAK1, IKKβ↓, IKKα↓, IL1β↓, STAT-3↓, TLR-4↑, TLR-7↑, TLR-8↑, Akt↓, TNFα↓, IκB↓
Alkaloids
 EvodiamineEvodia rutaecarpaAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, anticancer, antimetastatic, and anticarcinogenesisMurine Lewis lung, hepatocellular, leukemia, gastric, pancreatic, colon, human thyroid cancer, melanoma, colorectal, breast, cervix carcinoma, prostateGemcitabin, taxol, TNFα, cisplatinAtgs↑, 3-MA⊥, IL6↓, STAT3⊥, AP-1⊥, PLC- γ1⊥, XIAP⊥, Bax↑, CDK1⊥, ND cyclinB1↑, PI3K⊥, Akt⊥, PKA⊥, mTOR⊥, PTEN⊥, NF-κB↓, cyclinA↓, cyclinA-dependent kinase 2↓, cdc25c↓, TUNEL↑, procaspase-3-8-9↓, cdc25C↑, cyclin B1↑, cdc2-p161 protein↑, cdc2-p15, caspase-3-8-9↑, Fas-L↑, p53↑, p21↑, Bcl-2↓, TopI⊥, Raf-1↓, Bax↑, Bcl-2↑, Bcl-x(L)↓, Beclin 1↑, LC3↑, Cdc2↑, cyclin B1↑, Cdc2 (Thr 161) ↑, Cdc2 (Tyr 15) ↓, Myt-1↓, Cdc25C↓, caspase-3-9↑, ERK phosphorylation↓, VEGF⊥
Flavonoids
 HonokiolMagnolia officinalis, Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia spp.Antioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antiangiogenesis, antiautophagy, immunomodulation, anticancer, gastrointestinal disorders, cough, anxiety, and allergiesGlioblastoma, melanoma, gastric, leukemia, skin, colon, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, hepatocellular, colorectal, lung, prostate, human renal mesangial, head and neck squamous carcinomaFluconazole, Epigallocatechi n gallate (EGCG), TNFαCDK1⊥, Bcl-2↓, Bax↑, cyclin D1↓, pAKT↓, γ-secretase activity↓, γ-secretase complex proteins↓, PPARγ⊥, COX-2⊥, NF-κB⊥, EGFR/P13K/AKt↓; JunB↓and JunD↓ caspase-8↑, caspase-9↑, caspase-3↑, PARP↑, p53↑, CD31 staining↓, LH↑, p38⊥, NF-κB⊥, Bcl-XL↓, Bad↑, cyclin E↓, (Cdk2 and Cdk4)↓, Cdk↑, p21 and p27↑, NF-κB↓, Bcl-2↓, Mcl-1↓, surcivin↓, VEGF↓, STAT3⊥, HG-induced IL1β⊥, IL18⊥, TNFα⊥, -PGE2⊥, NO⊥, and TGFβ1⊥, MCP-1 ⊥, MIP-1α⊥, EGFR targeting TKI⊥, Akt⊥ erlotinib⊥, EGFR signaling⊥, MAPK⊥, cyclin D1⊥
 MagnololMagnolia officinalis, Magnolia obovata.Antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), immunomodulation, anticancer, antianxiety, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effectsGlioblastoma, bladder, breast, colon, gastric, skin, ovarian, lung, prostate, melanoma, liver cancer, cervical epitheloid carcinoma, leukemia, fibrosarcoma, neuroblastoma, thyroid carcinomaTNFα, curcuminp21/Cip1↑, p27/Kip1↑, Hypoxia⊥, HIF1α↑, VEGF↑, AMPK↑, Bcl2↓, Bax↑, p53↑, Bax/Bcl-2↑, caspase-3↑, Cyclin B1↓, Cyclin A↓, CDK-4↓, Cdc2↓, Cip↑, caspase-8↑, PARP↑, NF-κB↓, HER2↓, -PI3K/Akt↓, Bad↑, Bcl-X(S)↑, Bcl-X(L)↓, MMP-2↓, MMP-9↓, caspase-3, 9↑, ERK↑, Raf-1↑, Ca(2+) ↑, Cyto-c↑, bcl-2↓, LTC4⊥, LTB4⊥, IgE⊥, cPLA2⊥, 5-LO⊥, MMP-9⊥, Ca(2+)↑, caspase-7↑, ADP-ribose↓, phosphatase↑
 JaceosidinArtemisia princeps, Artemisia iwayomogi, Artemisia argyi, Artemisia copa, Artemisia vestita, Saussurea medusa, Eupatorium arnottianum, Eupatorium lindleyanum, Centaurea phyllocephala, Centaurea nicaeensis, Nipponanthemum nipponicum, Arnica chamissonis, Arnica Montana, Vervain officinalis, Lantana montevidensis, Eriodictyon californicumAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammationHuman endometrial, human ovary cancer, glioblastoma, breast, epithelial, prostate, cervical, mammary epithelialTNFαCdc2↓, cyclin B1↓, complex⊥, caspase-9↑, MMP.↓, p53↑, Bax↑, COX-2↑, MMP-9↑, TPA⊥, protein E6 and E7⊥, p53⊥, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, caspase-3↑, p53↑, p21↑, ERK1/2⊥
 CasticinVitex rotundifolia, V. agnus castus, V. trifolia, V. negundo, Daphne genkwa, Achillea millefolium, Ficus microcarpa, Fructus viticis, Crataegus pinnatifida, Pavetta crassipes, Nelsonia canescens, Citrus unshu, Centipeda minima, Clausena excavate, Croton betulaster, Artemisia abrotanum L., Camellia sinensisAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), premenstrual syndrome, anti-inflammation, antianxiety, immunomodulation, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antifungal propertiesCervical, pancreatic, colon, breast, lung, gastric, ovarian, liver, colorectal, leukemia, prostateTRAIL, TNFα, cisplatin, curcuminBcl-2↓, Bcl-xL↓, XIAP↓, caspase-3↑, caspase-9↑, Cyclin B1↓, Bax↑, TNF↓, DR5↑, MMP2↓, MMP9↓, NF-κB↓, STAT3↓, FOXO3a↓, FoxM1↓, CDK1↓, cdc25B↓, cyclin B↓, p27KIP1↑, Cyclin A↓, cFLIP↓, survivin↓, cytochrome c↑, Bid↑
Sesquiterpenes
 CostunolideInula helenium, Saussurea lappa, Magnolia grandifloraAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungalLiver, ovarian, breast, bladder, melanoma, leukemia, prostate, human monocyte, gastric, colorectalTNFα, taxol, cisplatinBcl-2 ↓, caspase-3↑, -8↑, and -9↑, Bax↑, Fas↑, Cdc2↓, cyclin B1↓; p21WAF1↑, pro-caspase-8↑, pro-caspase-3↑; JNK↑; PI3-K; PKC; ERK↑, NF-κB↓, cyclin E↓; p21↑, VEGF↓
 ParthenolideTanacetum parthenium., Tanacetum vulgare, Centaurea ainetensis, Tanacetum larvatum, Helianthus Annuus, Anvillea radiate, Magnolia kobus, Magnolia virginiana, Magnolia ovate, Magnolia grandiflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, Michelia, Magnolia champaca, Michelia floribunda, Tsoongiodendron odorum, Artemisia ludoviciana, Calea zacatechichi, Polymnia maculate, Achillea falcataAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antiangiogenesis, autophagy, immunomodulation, and cytotoxic effectsBreast, skin, melanoma, malignant glioma, epidermal tumorigenesis, liver, gastric, lung, bladder, prostate, bile duct carcinomas, pancreatic, myeloma, leukemia, colorectal, Burkitt lymphoma, epithelial ovarian, osteosarcomaTTRAIL, gemcitabin, taxol, TNFα, cisplatin, curcumin, okadaic acid, geldanamycin, buthionine sulfoximineBax↑, Bcl2↓, mRNA↓ metalloproteinase-9↓, STAT-3⊥, JNK↑, VEGF⊥, IL8⊥, ABCB5 transporter↓, Bcl-X(L) ↓, survivin↓, cyclin D1↓, IL8↓ matrix metalloproteinase 9↓, Akt phosphorylation↓, NF-κB↓, p65/NF-κB↓, Ki67↓, p21↑, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cystein⊥, glutathione S-transferase↓ STAT3⊥, JAK⊥, tBid↑ of caspase-3/8/9↑, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase⊥, p-ERK↑, p-p38↑, p38 and SAPK/JNK↑, PKC-alpha⊥, pro-caspase-3↓, p65↓, VEGF⊥, IL6 mRNA⊥, IkappaB-alpha↑, p53↑, ROS↑, JNK↑, Bid↑
 AlantolactoneInula helenium, L., Inula japonica Aucklandia lappa, Radix inulae Inula racemosaAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, antifungal, oxidoreductase, and antiproliferativeProstate, glioblastoma, colon, leukemia, liver, lungBax/Bcl-2↑, caspase-3↑, STAT3⊥, caspase-8, MMP↓, Bid↑, NF-B/p65↓, p53↑, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, caspase-9↑, caspase-3↑, ADP-ribose↓, NF-κB⊥, ROS↑, activin/SMAD3 signaling↑, Cripto-1/ActRII⊥, ROS↑, cytochrome-c↑, Bax↑, PARP↓, ADP-ribose↓, NF-B⊥, DNA-binding↓, IκBα phosphorylation↓, p21↑, Bcr/Abl↓, P-glycoprotein↓, cyclin B1↓, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-1↓
 IsoalantolactoneInula helenium, L., Inula japonica Aucklandia lappa, Radix inulae Inula racemosaAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, antifungal, oxidoreductase, and antiproliferativeProstate gastric pancreatic leukemiap38↑, MAPK↑, Bax↑, and cleaved caspase-3↑, Bcl-2↓, PI3K/Akt⊥, PARP↑
Diterpenoids
 OridoninIsodon rubescensAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, autophagy, and immunomodulationBreast, astrocytoma, leukemia, lung, hepatoma, prostate, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian, human multiple myeloma, human histocytic lymphoma, hepatocellular, cervical, neuroblastoma, laryngeal, gastric, murine fibrosarcoma, melanoma, epidermoid carcinoma, osteosarcomaTRAIL, gemcitabin, taxol, TNFα, cisplatin, curcumin, arsenic trioxide (As2O3), WogoninCaspase-8↓, NF-κB (p65)↓, IKKα↓, IKKβ↓, phospho-mTOR↓, Fas↑, PPARγ↑, MMP-2/MMP- 9↓, β1/FAK⊥, caspase-3↑, LYN⊥, ABL⊥, Akt/mTOR↓, Raf/MEK/ERK↓ and STAT5↓, AML1-ETO↓, c-Kit(+)⊥, c-Met-NF-κB-COX-2↑, c-Met-Bcl-2-caspase-3, Bcl-2/Bax ratio↑, AVOs↓, LC3-I⊥, LC3-II⊥, P21↑, FAS⊥, SREBP1⊥, AP- 1↓, NF-κB↓, P38↓, p21↑, p27↑, p16↑, c-myc p38↑, p53↑, (MAPK)-p38, cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 (T161)↓, p53↑, Akt↓, ROS↓, SIRT1↓, NF-κB↑, caspase-1↑, IL-1β↑, XIAP↓, Grp78↑, α-CP1↓, Bcl-2↓, caspase- 8↑, procaspase-3-9↓, pro-TNFα↑, p53↓, caspase-9↓, DeltaPsim↓, ERK↓, p38↑, MAPK↑, JNK↑
 Pseudolaric Acid BPseudolarix kaempferiAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), immunomodulation, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenesis effectsMicrovessel endothelial, prostate, glioblastoma, umbilical vein endothelial, murine fibrosarcoma, bladder, colon, lung, breast, melanoma, ovarian, leukemia, gastric, liverTaxol, TNFαNF-kB⊥, p65⊥, IL2↓, IkB-α ⊥, cyclin B1↑, CDK1↑, cyclin D1↓ p53↑, Bax↑, Bcl-2↓, 1α and cyclin E↓, cdc2↑, cdc2↓, survivin↓, caspase-3↑, COX-2⊥, STAT3, I-κB↓, Tubulin, binding of colchicine to tubulin⊥, bcl-x(L) ⊥, NAG-1↑, JNK↑, ERK↓, Wee1 kinase and p21↑, Bcl-xL↓, Bax↑, caspase-7↑, Fas/APO-1↑, Bcl-2 binding with Beclin 1⊥, Akt phosphorylation↓
Polyphenolic
 WedelolactoneEclipta alba, Wedelia calandulaceae, Wedelia chinensis, Eclipta prostrataAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, and hepatoprotective effectsBreast, prostate, neuroblastoma, pancreatic, mammary carcinosarcoma, myeloma, leukemia, adenoma, gliomaIFNγNF-κB↓, PARP↑, IIα↓, p-p53↑, caspase-3↑, caspase-7↑, c-JNK↑, PKCε↓, IKKα↓, Bax↑, Bcl- xL↓, p21↑, p27↑, Bcl-2↓, IL6↓, IL6R↓, c-myc, IKK↓, p-TAK1, IKKβ↓, IKKα↓, IL1β↓, STAT-3↓, TLR-4↑, TLR-7↑, TLR-8↑, Akt↓, TNFα↓, IκB↓
Alkaloids
 EvodiamineEvodia rutaecarpaAntioxidant, antiproliferation (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis), anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, anticancer, antimetastatic, and anticarcinogenesisMurine Lewis lung, hepatocellular, leukemia, gastric, pancreatic, colon, human thyroid cancer, melanoma, colorectal, breast, cervix carcinoma, prostateGemcitabin, taxol, TNF-α, cisplatinAtgs↑, 3-MA⊥, IL6↓, STAT3⊥, AP-1⊥, PLC-γ1⊥, XIAP⊥, Bax↑, CDK1⊥, ND cyclinB1↑, PI3K⊥, Akt⊥, PKA⊥, mTOR⊥, PTEN⊥, NF-κB↓, cyclinA↓, cyclinA-dependent kinase 2↓, cdc25c↓, TUNEL↑, procaspase-3-8-9↓, cdc25C↑, cyclin B1↑, cdc2-p161 protein↑, cdc2-p15, caspase-3-8-9↑, Fas- L↑, p53↑, p21↑, Bcl-2↓, TopI⊥, Raf-1↓, Bax↑, Bcl-2↑, Bcl-x(L) ↓, Beclin 1↑, LC3↑, Cdc2↑, cyclin B1↑, Cdc2 (Thr 161) ↑, Cdc2 (Tyr 15) ↓, Myt-1↓, Cdc25C↓, caspase-3-9↑, ERK phosphorylation↓, VEGF⊥

NOTE: ↓, downregulation; ↑, upregulation; ⊥, inhibition.