Table 1.

Overview of recent nonviral cancer immunoprevention studies

CancerVaccine typeAdjuvantTargetTreatment effectReference
Primary prevention
Colon cancer prevention for patients with colorectal adenomasPeptide vaccineToll-like receptor 3 agonist (poly-ICLC)MUC1
  • 44% MUC1-specific antibody response

  • Vaccine induces long-term memory

  • Nonresponders showed higher percentage of immunesuppressive mediators

  • No clinical endpoints

9
Secondary prevention
MelanomaDC vaccineKLHMelanoma-associated antigens (tyrosinase, Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, MAGE-1, and MAGE-3) or autologous tumor cell lysate
  • 3-year DFS 40.9% vs. 14.5% (historical controls, P = 0.1083)

  • 3-year OS 68.2% vs. 25.7% (historical controls, P = 0.0290)

10
MelanomaIpilimumab ± peptide vaccinationMontanide ISA 51 VGTyrosinase, gp100, MART-1
  • 23% stopped treatment due to toxicity related to ipilimumab

  • Median RFS and OS not reached at 29.5 months.

11
Breast cancerPeptide vaccineGM-CSFHER2 peptide E75
  • 2-year DFS 94.3% vs. 86.6% (controls, P = 0.08)

  • Subset analysis: improved DFS in node-positive, low HER2-expressing and low grade tumors.

  • Improved DFS in HER2-high–expressing patients receiving vaccine plus trastuzumab compared with vaccine alone

12
Follicular lymphomaProtein vaccineKLHTumor isotype matched Id (IgM and IgG)
  • Median DFS 44.2 vs. 30.6 months (controls, P = 0.047)

  • Median OS not reached

  • Subset analysis: improved DFS with IgM isotype vaccine

  • Trial done pre-rituximab

15
NSCLCProtein vaccineAS02BMAGE-A3
  • 44-month recurrence rate 35% vs. 43% (controls, not significant).

  • DFS or OS not significantly improved

21
MelanomaPeptide vaccineKLH plus QS-21GM2 ganglioside
  • Trial stopped after median follow up of 18 months due to increased survival in control group (HR, 1.66; P = 0.02)

22
Colorectal cancerViral vector vs. DC vaccineGM-CSF (viral vector)CEA, MUC1, CD80, CD54, and CD58
  • RFS 22.9 vs. 28.9 months (DC vs. viral vector)

  • Median OS not reached in either group vs. 44.1 months (historic controls, P < 0.0001)

16
Pancreatic cancerWhole cell vaccine (GVAX)GM-CSFAllogeneic pancreatic cancer cell line antigens (incl. mutated k-ras, mesothelin)
  • OS 24.8 vs. 20.3 months (historical controls, not significant)

  • Induction of mesothelin-specific CD8 T cells correlated with increased DFS

17