Table 1.

Metabolites that changed after 2 to 6 weeks daily limonene intervention (72 metabolites P ≤ 0.05; 39 metabolites Q ≤ 0.10)

Fold changePQ
Adrenal steroids
 Androsterone-S0.75<0.001<0.001
 Epiandosterone-S0.79<0.001<0.001
 Pregnendiol disulfate0.82<0.0010.01
 4-androsten-3β,17β diol disulfate 20.900.010.06
 DHEA-S0.930.020.12
Secondary bile acids
 Glycodeoxycholate2.30<0.010.02
 Glycoursodeoxycholate3.60<0.010.03
 Taurodeoxycholate3.50<0.010.03
 Taurocholate3.40<0.010.03
 Taurocholenate sulfate0.900.010.06
 Glychochenodeoxycholate2.500.010.92
 Glycocholate2.600.020.10
 Taurochenodeoxycholate2.000.020.12
 Deoxycholate1.700.050.18
Glucose/energy metabolism
 Glucuronate1.83<0.010.03
 Pyruvate1.66<0.010.03
 Acetylcarnitine0.89<0.010.03
 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)1.090.010.06
 Fructose1.560.020.10
 Mannitol4.870.030.14
 Citrate0.940.040.17
 Malate1.380.040.17
Collagen breakdown products
 Glycine1.380.010.01
 Proline1.20<0.0010.01
 Trans-4-hydroxyproline1.70<0.0010.01
 Pro-hydroxy-pro1.400.020.11
Amino acids and metabolites
 Indolepropionate2.60<0.001<0.001
 Alanine1.21<0.0010.02
 3-phenylpropionate (hydrocinnamate)1.95<0.0010.01
 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate0.87<0.010.03
 Kynurenate0.87<0.010.04
 Phenylacetate2.080.010.06
 γ-glutamylisoleucine0.910.010.07
 α-hydroxybutyrate (AHB)0.900.010.08
 Phenylalanyltryptophan0.920.010.08
 Aspartate0.930.020.12
 N-acetylglycine1.410.030.13
 γ-glutamylalanine1.150.030.13
 α-hydroxyisovalerate0.930.030.13
 Aspartylphenylalanine1.090.030.13
 Isoleucylvaline1.470.030.15
 Phenylalanine0.950.040.13
 Isobutyrylcarnitine1.480.050.18
Fatty acids
 Tetradecanedioate0.84<0.0010.01
 Hexadecanedioate0.82<0.0010.02
 Tetradecanedioate0.84<0.0010.01
 10-undecenoate (11:1n1)0.86<0.010.03
 5-dodecenoate (12:1n7)0.91<0.010.04
 Myristate (14:0)0.940.010.09
 Myristoleate (14:1n5)1.210.010.09
 3-hydroxydecanoate0.930.010.09
 Pentadecanoate (15:0)0.940.020.10
 Octadecanedioate0.940.020.11
 Eicosenoate (20:1n9 or 11)1.060.040.17
 Palmitoleate (16:1n7)1.130.040.17
 Eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n3)0.970.050.18
Lysolipids
 2-myristoylglycerophosphocholine2.300.010.06
 1-oleoylglycerophosphoethanolamine1.630.020.11
 1-heptadecanoylglycerophosphocholine3.630.020.12
 2-stearoylglycerophosphocholine2.800.030.14
 1-eicosadienoylglycerophosphocholine2.680.040.17
 2-palmitoylglycerophosphocholine3.780.050.18
Other
 Homostachydrine1.50<0.010.04
 Trigonelline (N′-methylnicotinate)1.200.010.05
 N4-acetylcytidine0.890.010.06
 1-methylxanthine1.610.010.09
 Hypoxanthine0.910.010.10
 5-acetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid0.920.020.10
 Ascorbate15.230.020.12
 D-Histidyl-D-tryptophyl-D-α-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-alanyl-L-serylleucylleucine (HWESASXX)0.940.020.12
 L-urobilin1.020.020.12
 Inositol 1-phosphate (I1P)1.440.040.17