Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 47,351 patients with diabetes

Ever userNever user
n = 21,526 (45.5%)n = 25,825 (54.5%)
n (%)n (%)
Age, y
 40–494,228 (19.6)3,023 (11.7)
 50–596,801 (31.6)4,968 (19.2)
 60–696,831 (31.7)7,755 (30.0)
 70+3,666 (17.0)10,079 (39.0)
Sex
 Male11,256 (52.3)14,292 (55.3)
 Female10,270 (47.7)11,533 (44.7)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white10,750 (49.9)14,289 (55.3)
 Black2,420 (11.2)3,335 (12.9)
 Asian or Pacific Islander3,173 (14.7)2,358 (9.1)
 Hispanic2,921 (13.6)2,543 (9.8)
 Other580 (2.7)745 (2.9)
 Missing1,682 (7.8)2,555 (9.9)
Median household income
 Low10,092 (46.9)13,010 (50.4)
 High11,134 (51.7)11,975 (46.4)
 Missing300 (1.4)840 (3.2)
Education level
 Less than high school2,553 (11.9)3,990 (15.5)
 High school graduate4,954 (23.0)6,020 (23.3)
 Some college5,775 (26.8)6,201 (24.0)
 College graduate2,294 (10.7)2,220 (8.6)
 Post-graduate2,466 (11.5)2,684 (10.4)
 Missing3,484 (16.2)4,710 (18.2)
Smoking history
 Never9,013 (41.9)9,470 (36.7)
 Former6,949 (32.3)8,995 (34.8)
 Current2,031 (9.4)2,438 (9.4)
 Missing3,533 (16.4)4,922 (19.1)
Alcohol history
 Never3,638 (16.9)4,255 (16.5)
 Former4,439 (20.6)5,958 (23.1)
 Current9,557 (44.4)10,179 (39.4)
 Missing3,892 (18.1)5,433 (21.0)
HbA1c (%)
 <74,467 (20.8)7,502 (29.0)
 7–7.94,354 (20.2)5,199 (20.1)
 8–8.93,202 (14.9)3,279 (12.7)
 9–9.92,267 (10.5)2,075 (8.0)
 10+3,975 (18.5)2,978 (11.5)
 Missing3,261 (15.1)4,792 (18.6)
BMI, kg/m2a29.7 (26.3–34.2)27.9 (24.8–31.9)
Creatininea0.8 (0.7–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
Time since diabetes diagnosis, (y)a6.0 (3.0–11.0)11.0 (5.0–19.0)
Charlson comorbidity index
 115,017 (69.8)14,569 (56.4)
 25,301 (24.6)6,754 (26.2)
 3+1,208 (5.6)4,502 (17.4)
Time since initiation of metformin (months)
 <123,560 (16.5)
 12–233,485 (16.2)
 24–353,385 (15.7)
 36–473,088 (14.4)
 48+8,008 (37.2)
  • aMedian (interquartile range).