Table 1.

Characteristics of human urine samples tested for miRNA expression

A. Arsenic-exposed and unexposed normal urine samples
Arsenic unexposed
CharacteristicsArsenic exposed (n = 110)Smokers (n = 11)Nonsmokers (n = 46)Total (n = 67a)
Age, y
 Mean36.859.468.266.5
 Range20—6550—7339–9439–94
Gender
 Male5483745
 Female563912
Smoking history
 NeverNot availableN/AN/A46
 0–20 pack yearsNot available5N/A5
 >20–35 pack yearsNot available1N/A1
 >35 pack yearsNot available5N/A5
 UnknownNot availableN/AN/A10
Water arsenic, μg/L
 <1028N/AN/AN/A
 10–5022N/AN/AN/A
 >5021N/AN/AN/A
 Unknown39N/AN/AN/A
Creatinine-adjusted urine arsenic, μg/g
 <10035N/AN/AN/A
 100–20038N/AN/AN/A
 >20037N/AN/AN/A
B. Urothelial carcinoma and arsenic unexposed normal urine samples
Arsenic unexposed
CharacteristicsCancer (n = 32)Smokers (n = 11)Nonsmokers (n = 46)Total (n = 67a)
Age, y
 Mean65.459.468.266.5
 Range36–8450–7339–9439–94
Gender
 Male2683745
 Female63912
Stage
 CIS7N/AN/AN/A
 pTa16N/AN/AN/A
 T15N/AN/AN/A
 ≥pT24N/AN/AN/A

Abbreviation: N/A, not applicable.

  • aIncluded 10 unexposed samples with unknown smoking history.