Table 2

. Demographic and post-diagnostic dietary characteristics according to quartiles of dietary pattern scores among 926 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in PHS (n = 926)

Prudent dietary patternWestern dietary pattern
Total populationQuartile 1Quartile 4PaQuartile 1Quartile 4Pa
n926231231231231
Subject characteristics
 Age at diagnosis, y, mean (SD)68.6 (6.9)69.4 (7.2)67.8 (6.5)0.0868.2 (7.1)69.9 (6.5)0.01
 Caucasian, %95.6895.796.10.9893.5970.01
 BMI, kg/m2, %0.040.24
  <2546.739.448.952.840.7
  25–3047.356.742.942.952
  >306.13.98.24.37.4
 Smoking status, %0.009<0.001
  Never47.142.454.148.137.7
  Past50.453.343.751.257.6
  Current2.54.32.20.44.8
 Days per week of vigorous exerciseb0.040.04
  None33.737.229.027.328.5
  <1 day/week2.53.01.72.62.6
  1–2 day/week17.716.014.320.413.0
  3–4 day/week29.526.836.830.324.7
  5–7 day/week16.616.918.219.521.2
 Family history of prostate cancer, %c16.911.719.10.0720.415.20.35
 Clinical stage, %0.970.97
  T1/T295.194.895.295.795.2
  T34.95.24.84.34.8
 Gleason score, %0.860.54
  <769.171.969.373.664.9
  721.519.120.817.324.2
  >76.95.67.86.97.4
 Missing2.53.52.22.23.5
 PSA at diagnosis, ng/mL, %0.190.007
  <410.510.81311.713.4
  4–9.946.041.948.550.739.4
  10–19.919.721.218.217.320.4
  ≥2010.87.49.510.88.2
  Missing13.117.810.89.518.6
 Primary treatment,%d0.600.72
  Radiation10.412.67.410.010.8
  Prostatectomy43.744.246.848.539.8
  Chemo- or hormone therapy7.15.197.366.97.8
  Others1.82.161.730.93.0
  Unspecified or missing36.935.936.833.838.5
Daily dietary nutrients (energy adjusted)
 Carbohydrate, g, mean (SD)217.4 (40.9)203.3 (43.8)232.4 (36.0)<0.001242.7 (38.9)192.7 (32.7)<0.001
 Protein, g, mean (SD)76.9 (13.6)74.3 (15.6)78.7 (12.6)<0.00176.9 (14.0)78.4 (12.7)0.28
 Fat, g, mean (SD)50.5 (11.9)55.3 (12.8)45.6 (10.8)<0.00141.3 (9.4)59.1 (9.8)<0.001
 Vegetable fat, g, mean (SD)20.2 (7.3)19.5 (7.9)20.5 (7.3)0.2719.2 (7.2)20.5 (7.3)0.08
 Animal fat, g, mean (SD)30.3 (11.6)35.7 (12.6)25.1 (10.4)<0.00122.1 (8.9)38.6 (10.5)<0.001
 Cholesterol, mg, mean (SD)211 (95)238 (119)187 (85)<0.001162 (68)269 (110)<0.001
 Caffeine, mg, mean (SD)165 (135)180 (149)159 (124)0.21150 (135)185 (142)0.05
 Alcohol, g, mean (SD)13.2 (15.3)17.6 (20.1)9.5 (10.1)<0.00113.8 (17.0)12.2 (12.6)0.64
 Calcium, mg, mean (SD)989 (559)917 (576)1,023 (527)0.121,162 (670)841 (376)<0.001
 Vitamin D, IU, mean (SD)379 (283)363 (300)363 (219)0.32459 (320)321 (220)<0.001

Abbreviation: IU, international unit.

  • aThe χ2 test was used for categorical variables, and analysis of variance was used for continuous variables. All statistical tests were two-sided.

  • bIf a patient reported to engage in a regular program of exercise vigorous enough to work up a sweat, additional information on the frequency of engagement was collected.

  • cIf a patient reported he had a brother or father was ever diagnosed with prostate cancer without including half siblings.

  • dOthers include orchiectomy, watchful waiting, and other treatments.