Table 3.

The associations between salivary and serum estradiol (SD) and progesterone (SD) and absolute mammographic density (cm2), stratified by tertiles of HDL-C

HDL-C <1.39 (n = 66)aHDL-C 1.39–1.67 (n = 68)aHDL-C >1.67 (n = 65)a
VariablesMean (SD)β-Coefficient (95% CI)Pβ-Coefficient (95% CI)Pβ-Coefficient (95% CI)P
Estradiol (E2)
 Saliva, pmol/Lb
  Mid-menstrual, days −7 to +618.2 (8.98)3.99 (0.19–7.81)0.041−6.01 (−13.0–0.97)0.0903.39 (−2.90–9.69)0.283
  Follicular phase, days −7 to −119.0 (9.58)4.67 (0.97–8.36)0.014−6.13 (−13.9–1.65)0.1204.10 (−2.29–10.5)0.203
  Luteal phase, days 0 to +617.4 (9.22)2.79 (−1.14–6.72)0.161−5.49 (−11.9–0.90)0.0912.38 (−3.77–8.52)0.440
  AUCthrough cycle, time × pmol/L269 (133)4.09 (0.30–7.89)0.035−6.09 (−13.1–0.92)0.0873.69 (−2.61–9.99)0.244
 Serum, nmol/L
  Early follicularc0.15 (0.06)−0.56 (−3.82–2.71)0.734−1.91 (−13.2–9.36)0.7362.77 (−1.90–7.44)0.240
  Late folliculard0.44 (0.31)−1.42 (−6.49–3.65)0.577−1.79 (−7.82–4.25)0.556−2.03 (−7.04–2.98)0.421
  Late luteale0.43 (0.20)2.08 (−2.00–6.17)0.3111.34 (−6.32–8.99)0.7281.16 (−4.11–6.43)0.661
Progesterone
 Saliva, pmol/Lb
  Luteal, days 0 to +9142 (73.5)4.31 (0.46–8.16)0.029−1.06 (−7.77–5.65)0.7520.93 (−5.32–7.17)0.767
  AUCthrough cycle, time × pmol/L1341 (718)4.36 (0.54–8.18)0.026−1.86 (−8.71–4.99)0.589−0.00 (−6.14–6.14)0.999
 Serum, nmol/L
  Early follicularc4.83 (6.29)1.42 (−2.10–4.94)0.422−2.73 (−16.9–11.5)0.703−0.04 (−4.09–4.01)0.985
  Late folliculard5.24 (7.54)−2.71 (−7.82–18.8)0.2935.80 (−0.31–11.9)0.0623.71 (−0.71–8.13)0.098
  Late luteale35.6 (20.1)2.18 (−2.18–6.54)0.321−4.57 (−11.7–2.52)0.2020.93 (−4.40–6.26)0.729
  SHBGc51.9 (19.5)−0.92 (−5.92–4.08)0.7144.01 (−4.91–12.9)0.3720.46 (−3.83–4.75)0.832

NOTE: Linear Regression analysis. Adjusted for age, BMI, parity, smoking, OC. Regression coefficient and 95% CI.

Abbreviations: E2, 17β-estradiol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OC, oral contraceptive use.

  • aNumbers may vary due to missing information.

  • bDaily salivary samples throughout one entire menstrual cycle.

  • cSerum samples in early follicular phase: days 1 to 5 after onset of menstrual cycle.

  • dSerum samples in late follicular phase: days 7 to 12 after onset of menstrual cycle.

  • eSerum samples in luteal phase; days 21 to 25 after onset of menstrual cycle.

  • fMammograms were taken at days 7 to 12 (mid-cycle phase) after onset of the menstrual cycle.