Table 4.

Mean levels of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers by demographic and lifestyle factors

CRP, μg/mLCytokine z-scoreF2-isoprostanes, pg/mL
nMeana (95% CIa)PanMeana (95% CIa)PanMeana (95% CIa)Pa
Sex
 Male1191.91 (1.54–2.36)119−0.02 (−0.61 to 0.57)11874.99 (68.06–82.63)
 Female712.05 (1.56–2.70)0.69710.03 (−0.73 to 0.80)0.9170101.72 (89.67–115.38)<0.01
BMI, kg/m2
 <25491.31 (0.94–1.82)49−1.07 (−1.99 to −0.14)4982.52 (70.95–95.98)
 25–27.49341.24 (0.83–1.87)34−0.68 (−1.82 to 0.47)3273.97 (60.95–89.76)
 27.50–29.99412.30 (1.59–3.33)410.75 (−0.29 to 1.78)4192.64 (78.23–109.71)
 30–34.99513.29 (2.37–4.56)510.86 (−0.05 to 1.78)5190.81 (78.14–105.53)
 ≥35152.70 (1.49–4.88)<0.01150.42 (−1.25 to 2.08)<0.0115108.22 (82.42–142.09)0.05
Waist–hip ratiob
 Tertile 1631.34 (1.00–1.81)63−1.06 (−1.87 to −0.24)6274.43 (65.11–85.09)
 Tertile 2642.00 (1.48–2.69)64−0.06 (−0.87 to 0.75)6395.70 (83.72–109.39)
 Tertile 3632.86 (2.12–3.86)<0.01631.12 (0.31–1.93)<0.016393.28 (81.67–106.53)0.02
Current cigarette smoker
 Yes383.46 (2.37–5.05)381.01 (−0.05 to 2.07)3897.55 (81.91–116.18)
 No1491.70 (1.40–2.06)<0.01149−0.28 (−0.82 to 0.26)0.0314785.45 (78.13–93.46)0.19
OBSb
 Tertile 1702.48 (1.88–3.28)700.09 (−0.70 to 0.88)6994.13 (82.71–107.14)
 Tertile 2572.29 (1.69–3.12)570.28 (−0.59 to 1.16)5788.62 (76.88–102.16)
 Tertile 3601.39 (1.04–1.87)0.0160−0.24 (−1.08 to 0.60)0.595980.34 (69.97–92.23)0.10
OBS-dietb
 Tertile 1612.32 (1.72–3.13)610.60 (−0.23 to 1.43)60103.12 (90.11–118.02)
 Tertile 2661.95 (1.45–2.61)66−0.52 (−1.33 to 0.29)6684.95 (74.57–96.77)
 Tertile 3601.78 (1.31–2.40)0.22600.06 (−0.77 to 0.9)0.375977.19 (67.40–88.40)<0.01
OBS-lifestyleb
 Tertile 1452.79 (1.97–3.94)450.65 (−0.33 to 1.64)4595.79 (81.55–112.53)
 Tertile 2782.31 (1.78–2.99)78−0.04 (−0.78 to 0.69)7784.80 (75.09–95.77)
 Tertile 3671.31 (0.98–1.74)<0.0167−0.37 (−1.19 to 0.45)0.136684.91 (74.24–97.13)0.30
Regular use of aspirin
 Yes402.17 (1.49–3.15)401.31 (0.30–2.32)3972.06 (60.88–85.30)
 No1501.93 (1.58–2.35)0.58150−0.35 (−0.88 to 0.19)<0.0114991.90 (84.18–100.33)0.01
Regular use of non-aspirin NSAIDs
 Yes191.82 (1.06–3.13)19−0.75 (−2.23 to 0.74)1988.50 (69.25–113.11)
 No1671.99 (1.65–2.14)0.761670.09 (−0.43 to 0.61)0.3016587.59 (80.33–95.50)0.94

Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • a Mean, standard error, and P value were calculated using analysis of covariance. Models for all variables except sex were adjusted for sex (men/women). Models for all variables except BMI and waist–hip ratio also adjusted for BMI (continuous). P value is for trend if explanatory variable has more than two categories. Geometric means presented for CRP and F2-isoprostane because of the nonnormality of the original observations.

  • b OBS reflects combined contributions of antioxidant and pro-oxidant diet and/or lifestyle exposures, with a higher score indicating lower oxidative stress. Tertiles are sex specific.