Table 3.

Changes in plasma cytokine summary z-scorea among colorectal adenoma patients in response to calcium supplementation

BaselineFour-month follow-upAbsolute treatment effectc
nMeanb (95% CI)nMeanb (95% CI)Change from baseline to follow-upMean (95% CI)P
Placebo65−0.11 (−0.92 to 0.70)60−0.50 (−1.33 to 0.32)−0.39
1 g calcium620.40 (−0.42 to 1.22)580.27 (−0.57 to 1.10)−0.130.26 (−0.64 to 1.17)0.57
2 g calcium63−0.25 (−1.07 to 0.57)58−0.51 (−1.35 to 0.33)−0.260.13 (−0.77 to 1.03)0.78
  • aSummary z-score of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12p40, VEGF, and IL-10) calculated as the sum of the z-values for each cytokine [z = (xμ)/δ, where x is the natural log-transformed values for each individual marker, and μ and δ are the sex-specific mean and standard deviation of the natural log-transformed biomarker value, respectively, at baseline]. The z-value for IL-10 was included with a negative sign.

  • bArithmetic means.

  • cCalculated as (treatment group arithmetic mean at follow-up − treatment group arithmetic mean at baseline) − (placebo group arithmetic mean at follow-up − placebo group arithmetic mean at baseline); mean, 95% CI, and P-value obtained from the repeated measures mixed linear model.