Baseline | Four-month follow-up | Absolute treatment effect^{c} | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

n | Mean^{b} (95% CI) | n | Mean^{b} (95% CI) | Change from baseline to follow-up | Mean (95% CI) | P | |

Placebo | 65 | −0.11 (−0.92 to 0.70) | 60 | −0.50 (−1.33 to 0.32) | −0.39 | — | — |

1 g calcium | 62 | 0.40 (−0.42 to 1.22) | 58 | 0.27 (−0.57 to 1.10) | −0.13 | 0.26 (−0.64 to 1.17) | 0.57 |

2 g calcium | 63 | −0.25 (−1.07 to 0.57) | 58 | −0.51 (−1.35 to 0.33) | −0.26 | 0.13 (−0.77 to 1.03) | 0.78 |

↵

^{a}Summary*z*-score of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12p40, VEGF, and IL-10) calculated as the sum of the*z*-values for each cytokine [*z*= (*x*−*μ*)/*δ*, where*x*is the natural log-transformed values for each individual marker, and*μ*and*δ*are the sex-specific mean and standard deviation of the natural log-transformed biomarker value, respectively, at baseline]. The*z*-value for IL-10 was included with a negative sign.↵

^{b}Arithmetic means.↵

^{c}Calculated as (treatment group arithmetic mean at follow-up − treatment group arithmetic mean at baseline) − (placebo group arithmetic mean at follow-up − placebo group arithmetic mean at baseline); mean, 95% CI, and*P*-value obtained from the repeated measures mixed linear model.