Table 2.

Changes in plasma concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among colorectal adenoma patients in response to calcium supplementation

BaselineFour-month follow-upRelative treatment effectb
BiomarkernMeana (95% CI)nMeana (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)PAbsolute effectc
Inflammation
CRP, μg/mL
 Placebo651.62 (1.20–2.18)601.68 (1.24–2.28)
 1 g calcium622.81 (2.08–3.82)582.65 (1.94–3.61)0.91 (0.66–1.25)0.55−0.22
 2 g calcium631.66 (1.23–2.26)581.96 (1.44–2.68)1.14 (0.83–1.56)0.430.24
IL-6, pg/mL
 Placebo652.05 (1.77–2.38)602.10 (1.80–2.44)
 1 g calcium622.75 (2.36–3.20)582.52 (2.16–2.94)0.89 (0.72–1.10)0.30−0.28
 2 g calcium631.95 (1.67–2.26)582.32 (1.98–2.71)1.16 (0.94–1.43)0.160.32
IL-8, pg/mL
 Placebo655.59 (5.03–6.21)605.39 (4.84–6.00)
 1 g calcium625.72 (5.14–6.37)585.58 (5.00–6.22)1.01 (0.91–1.13)0.840.06
 2 g calcium635.70 (5.12–6.35)585.20 (4.66–5.81)0.95 (0.85–1.05)0.32−0.30
IL-10, pg/mL
 Placebo651.86 (1.40–2.49)602.07 (1.55–2.76)
 1 g calcium622.17 (1.62–2.90)582.29 (1.71–3.07)0.95 (0.81–1.12)0.55−0.09
 2 g calcium632.21 (1.65–2.96)582.51 (1.87–3.36)1.02 (0.87–1.20)0.770.09
IL-12p40, pg/mL
 Placebo6518.73 (16.05–21.86)6018.71 (16.02–21.86)
 1 g calcium6218.75 (16.05–21.92)5820.94 (17.90–24.50)1.12 (1.01–1.23)0.032.21
 2 g calcium6317.42 (14.89–20.38)5818.23 (15.56–21.35)1.05 (0.95–1.16)0.360.83
TNF-α, pg/mL
 Placebo651.41 (1.28–1.55)601.41 (1.28–1.55)
 1 g calcium621.32 (1.20–1.45)581.42 (1.29–1.56)1.08 (1.01–1.15)0.040.10
 2 g calcium631.42 (1.29–1.56)581.45 (1.32–1.60)1.02 (0.96–1.10)0.480.03
VEGF, pg/mL
 Placebo6576.39 (63.95–91.26)6076.17 (63.62–91.20)
 1 g calcium6285.02 (71.01–101.8)5879.56 (66.32–95.44)0.94 (0.81–1.09)0.42−5.24
 2 g calcium6380.10 (66.87–95.96)5873.00 (60.80–87.66)0.91 (0.79–1.06)0.25−6.88
IL-1β, pg/mL
 Placebo650.16 (0.13–0.20)600.13 (0.10–0.16)
 1 g calcium620.17 (0.14–0.22)580.16 (0.12–0.20)1.12 (0.72–1.72)0.620.02
 2 g calcium630.16 (0.13–0.21)580.14 (0.11–0.17)1.03 (0.67–1.59)0.900.01
Oxidative stress
F2-isoprostane, pg/mL
 Placebo6486.82 (77.01–97.87)6085.94 (76.02–97.15)
 1 g calcium6180.15 (70.93–90.57)5881.81 (72.24–92.65)1.03 (0.87–1.22)0.722.54
 2 g calcium6384.61 (74.96–95.49)5885.38 (75.37–96.72)1.02 (0.86–1.21)0.821.65
  • aGeometric means.

  • bCalculated as (treatment group geometric mean at follow-up/treatment group geometric mean at baseline)/(placebo group geometric mean at follow-up/placebo group geometric mean at baseline); mean, 95% CI, and P-value obtained from the repeated measures mixed linear model.

  • cCalculated as (treatment group geometric mean at follow-up − treatment group geometric mean at baseline) − (placebo group geometric mean at follow-up − placebo group geometric mean at baseline).