Table 5.

OR (95% confidence interval) of advanced colorectal adenomas according to quartiles of plasma MIC-1 levels by adenoma characteristics in the Nurses' Health Study (1990–2008)

SubgroupQuartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4Ptrend
Multiple adenoma
 No. of cases/controlsa50/5646/5958/6298/75
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)0.88 (0.50–1.56)1.06 (0.59–1.89)1.75 (0.98–3.13)0.02
Adenoma of ≥1 cm
 No. of cases/controlsa141/155146/149141/159185/150
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.11 (0.79–1.56)0.99 (0.69–1.41)1.49 (1.02–2.18)0.03
Proximal colon adenoma
 No. of cases/controlsa39/4855/5645/5467/48
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.25 (0.70–2.23)1.06 (0.54–2.05)1.97 (1.01–3.84)0.04
Distal colon adenoma
 No. of cases/controlsa82/7467/7872/7877/68
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)0.80 (0.50–1.29)0.82 (0.50–1.36)1.02 (0.59–1.78)0.76
Rectal adenoma
 No. of cases/controlsa25/2928/2316/2029/26
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.49 (0.63–3.52)0.87 (0.37–2.03)1.28 (0.54–3.04)0.82
Multiple adenomas in ≥2 locations
 No. of cases/controlsa30/3122/2833/3046/42
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)0.76 (0.35–1.66)0.97 (0.47–2.02)1.12 (0.52–2.42)0.55
Villous or tubulovillous adenoma or high-grade dysplasia
 No. of cases/controlsa100/10891/9187/95122/106
 OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.08 (0.72–1.61)1.00 (0.65–1.56)1.29 (0.82–2.04)0.26

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; MIC-1, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1.

  • aAdenoma characteristics were missing for some cases and thus the total number of cases may not add up to 757.

  • bMultivariable model accounted for matching factors [date of endoscopy (i.e., had to be performed during the same 2-year period), birth year, indication for endoscopy, time period of any prior endoscopy, month and year of blood draw, and fasting status] and was additionally adjusted for family history of colorectal cancer (yes or no), multivitamin use (yes or no), pack-years of smoking before age 30 (0, 0–7.9, ≥8), alcohol consumption (0–0.14, 0.15–1.9, 2.0–7.4, ≥7.5 g/d), body mass index (<21, 21–22.9, 23–24.9, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2), physical activity (≤5, 5.1–10, 10.1–20, >20 MET-hours/week), regular aspirin/NSAID use (yes or no), postmenopausal status and hormone use (premenopausal, postmenopausal with ever or never using hormone therapy), calcium intake (in tertiles), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (in tertiles).