Table 3.

Risk of advanced colorectal adenoma according to quintiles of plasma inflammatory marker levels in the Nurses' Health Study (1990–2008)a

BiomarkerQuintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5Ptrend
MIC-1
 Median, ng/L398505596707951
 No. of cases/controls131/148150/148131/147145/148181/147
 Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.19 (0.86–1.64)1.06 (0.75–1.49)1.17 (0.83–1.65)1.52 (1.06–2.18)0.03
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)c1.00 (referent)1.20 (0.86–1.68)1.00 (0.70–1.42)1.13 (0.79–1.63)1.49 (1.01–2.18)0.05
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)d1.00 (referent)1.19 (0.84–1.67)1.01 (0.70–1.44)1.10 (0.76–1.60)1.55 (1.03–2.32)0.04
CRP
 Median, mg/L0.430.911.702.996.32
 No. of cases/controls127/150137/152131/151169/151190/150
 Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.06 (0.77–1.47)1.04 (0.75–1.46)1.32 (0.96–1.83)1.49 (1.09–2.05)0.06
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)c1.00 (referent)1.00 (0.71–1.40)0.96 (0.68–1.36)1.15 (0.81–1.63)1.26 (0.89–1.79)0.21
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)d1.00 (referent)0.93 (0.66–1.33)0.95 (0.66–1.36)1.10 (0.77–1.59)1.10 (0.76–1.59)0.62
IL6
 Median, ng/L0.420.670.961.422.64
 No. of cases/controls126/147183/147121/146148/147155/146
 Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)1.49 (1.06–2.09)0.97 (0.68–1.38)1.18 (0.84–1.65)1.23 (0.88–1.71)0.59
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)c1.00 (referent)1.33 (0.94–1.89)0.79 (0.54–1.16)0.93 (0.64–1.35)0.99 (0.69–1.42)0.64
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)d1.00 (referent)1.33 (0.93–1.89)0.77 (0.52–1.14)0.91 (0.62–1.33)0.96 (0.65–1.42)0.53
sTNFR-2
 Median, μg/L1.972.382.643.013.71
 No. of cases/controls153/152140/151145/152155/151164/151
 Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (referent)0.92 (0.66–1.28)0.96 (0.69–1.34)1.03 (0.74–1.44)1.10 (0.78–1.54)0.41
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)c1.00 (referent)0.86 (0.61–1.21)0.91 (0.64–1.29)0.92 (0.65–1.31)0.99 (0.68–1.42)0.83
 MV-adjusted OR (95% CI)d1.00 (referent)0.86 (0.60–1.23)0.90 (0.63–1.29)0.88 (0.61–1.28)0.89 (0.60–1.33)0.69

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; CRP, C-reactive protein; MIC-1, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1; MV, multivariable; sTNFR-2, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2.

  • aThe number of pairs of subjects with missing measurements were excluded from the analysis: 19 for MIC-1, 3 for CRP, and 24 for IL6.

  • bAge-adjusted models accounted for matching factors [date of endoscopy (i.e., had to be performed during the same 2-year period), birth year, indication for endoscopy, time period of any prior endoscopy, month and year of blood draw, and fasting status].

  • cMultivariable-adjusted models accounted for matching factors and were adjusted for family history of colorectal cancer (yes or no), multivitamin use (yes or no), pack-years of smoking before age 30 (0, 0–7.9, ≥8), alcohol consumption (0–0.14, 0.15–1.9, 2.0–7.4, ≥7.5 g/d), body mass index (<21, 21–22.9, 23–24.9, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2), physical activity (≤5, 5.1–10, 10.1–20, >20 MET-hours/week), regular aspirin/NSAID use (yes or no), postmenopausal status and hormone use (premenopausal, postmenopausal with ever or never using hormone therapy), calcium intake (in tertiles), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (in tertiles).

  • dMultivariable-adjusted models were additionally adjusted for the other plasma markers omitting the main exposure (i.e., MIC-1, CRP, IL6, and sTNFR-2).