Table 2.

Eighty-seven risk factors (excluding genes and SNPs) considered across all included studies

Personal characteristicsDiet
 Age Fiber intake
 BMI Meat
 Gender Red meat
 Consanguinuity Processed meat
 Family history of colorectal cancer Servings of beef, pork or lamb
 Height White meat
 Race/ethnicity Frozen meat/chicken
 Marital status Preference for well-done meat
 Education level Vegetables
 Employment status Fresh vegetables
 Knowledge of high-fiber diet Green vegetables
 Years of education Green salad
 Urban or rural living Fruit
Personal medical history Fast food
 Gastric operation history Processed food
 Gallbladder operation history Pickled food
 Appendix operations Fried food
 Hypertension Smoked food
 Diabetes or history of diabetes Eggs
 Inflammatory bowel disease Milk
 History of coronary heart disease Fat
 History of cardiovascular disease Saturated fat
 Polyp history Bakery products
 History of cancer Refined grain
 Defecation frequency Tea
 Non-specific abdominal pain Olive oil
Female hormonal factors Soft drinks
 HRT (ever, current or past) Bamboo root intake
 Estrogen use Cold cereal
 Menopausal status Glycemic index of intake
 Age at menarche Western diet
 Age at first childbirth Prudent dietary pattern
 Age at menopause Calorific intake
Lifestyle Mutagen indexa
 Smoking (tobacco or Sheesha) Calcium intake
 Alcohol Folic acid intake
 Physical activity Lutein intake
Drug and vitamin supplementation Fasting glucose
 NSAID use Hyperlipidemia
 Aspirin use Cholesterol
 Multivitamin use Triglycerides
 Calcium supplementation Hemoglobin
 Vitamin D supplementationOther tests
 Vitamin C supplementation Fecal immunochemical test
 Vitamin E supplementation fecal occult blood test
 Prior sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
  • aMutagen index considers cooking temperature, frequency of consumption of meats cooked at high temperature and how well-done the meats are.