Table 3.

Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model OS, CS, and BCS (n = 59)a

OSCSBCS
nHR (95% CI)PbHR (95% CI)PbHR (95% CI)Pb
Tumor stage
 pTa361.01.01.0
 pT1231.81 (0.80–4.11)0.162.75 (1.03–7.37)0.044.10 (0.67–25.08)0.13
Smoking habit
 Never151.01.0
 Ever (current/former)444.34 (1.25–15.07)0.025.02 (1.10–23.02)0.04
Treatment
 Control301.0
 Fenretinide296.85 (0.74–63.79)0.09
VEGF (at baseline)
 <350 pg/mL471.01.01.0
 ≥350 pg/mL (5th quintile)122.65 (1.09–6.47)0.033.27 (1.14–9.40)0.038.87 (1.29–61.22)0.03
  • aThe risk estimates are age-adjusted; we adopted a backward stepwise selection approach with a significance level equal to 0.20 for removal from the model; total n = 59 due to missing data for n = 3 DNA index values.

  • bTwo-sided Wald test.