Table 2.

Main subject characteristics by serum availability for VEGF level determination

VEGF level determined (n = 62)VEGF level undetermined (n = 37)Pa
Age, yearsb60 ± 9.565 ± 7.90.03c
Sex
 Male48 (77.0)d32 (86.5)0.3
 Female14 (23.0)5 (13.5)
Smoking habit
 Non smoker16 (25.8)7 (18.9)0.5
 Former smoker21 (33.9)17 (46.0)
 Current smoker25 (40.3)13 (35.1)
Tumor stage
 pTa37 (59.7)21 (56.8)0.8
 pT125 (40.3)16 (43.2)
Tumor grade
 G125 (40.3)16 (43.2)0.6
 G230 (48.4)19 (51.4)
 G37 (11.3)2 (5.4)
Tumor history
 First event24 (38.7)12 (32.4)0.5
 Recurrent tumor38 (61.3)25 (67.6)
DNA indexe
 DI < 1.1 (Diploid)25 (42.4)10 (29.4)0.2
 DI ≥ 1.1 (Aneuploid)34 (57.6)24 (70.6)
Previous intravesical treatment
 None5 (8.0)5 (13.5)0.1
 BCG37 (59.7)14 (37.8)
 Chemotherapy20 (32.3)18 (48.7)
Treatment arm
 Control33 (53.2)17 (45.9)0.5
 Fenretinide29 (46.8)20 (54.1)
  • aPearson χ2 or Fisher exact test.

  • bMean ± standard deviation.

  • cMann–Whitney rank test.

  • dNumber in parentheses are percentages.

  • eThree patients missed DNA index evaluation in the control group.