Table 4.

The changes of urinary concentrations of benzene, acrolein and crotonaldehyde mercapturic acids, prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGEM), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F (8-iso-PGF) in smokers before and after intake of PEITC, The PEITC Intervention Study 2008–2013

Geometric means
Urinary biomarkersPlacebo (n = 82)PEITC (n = 82)% Difference (95% CI)Pa
Benzene SPMA (pmol/mg creatinine)2.603.2524.6 (9.3–42.1)0.002
Acrolein HPMA (nmol/mg creatinine)7.348.4515.1 (4.5–26.7)0.005
Crotonaldehyde HMPMA (nmol/mg creatinine)5.165.445.5 (−1.8–13.4)0.148
PGEM (pmol/mg creatinine)49.350.93.3 (−4.9–12.3)0.444
8-iso-PGF (pmol/mg creatinine)0.860.871.3 (−4.9–8.0)0.684
  • aTwo-sided P values were derived from the mixed models that test the PEITC treatment effect.