Table 3.

Adjusteda ORs (95% CIs) for the associations between baseline concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and high versus low baseline fecal bile acid concentrations

Vitamin D status [n, mean 25(OH)D ± SD]
DeficientInadequateAdequate
Low vs. highb baseline bilen = 146n = 280n = 224
acid concentrations<20 ng/mL≥20 and <30 ng/mL≥30 ng/mLPtrendc
Total low
 High1.000.87 (0.57–1.35)0.61 (0.38–0.97)<0.05
Primary low
 High1.000.71 (0.46–1.09)0.61 (0.38–0.96)<0.05
Secondary low
 High1.000.97 (0.62–1.50)0.66 (0.41–1.06)<0.05
Chenodeoxycholic low
 High1.000.54 (0.35–0.83)0.39 (0.24–0.63)<0.001
Cholic low
 High1.000.66 (0.43–1.02)0.56 (0.36–0.90)<0.05
Lithocholic low
 High1.000.89 (0.58–1.36)0.68 (0.43–1.08)0.08
Deoxycholic low
 High1.001.09 (0.70–1.68)0.83 (0.52–1.33)0.33
Ursodeoxycholic low
 High1.000.88 (0.58–1.36)0.67 (0.42–1.07)0.09
Ursocholic low
 High1.000.70 (0.46–1.07)0.68 (0.43–1.08)0.13
Otherd low
 High1.000.63 (0.41–0.97)0.60 (0.38–0.96)<0.05
Tertile of 1,25(OH)2D concentrations n (mean ± SD)
Tertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3
Low vs. highb baseline bilen = 230n = 220n = 201
acid concentrations22.6 ± 4.6 pg/ml33.5 ± 2.8 pg/ml46.8 ± 7.9 pg/mlPtrendc
Total (Low)
 High1.000.89 (0.60–1.31)1.18 (0.79–1.76)0.44
Primary (Low)
 High1.000.86 (0.59–1.28)0.88 (0.60–1.31)0.52
Secondary (Low)
 High1.001.03 (0.70–1.53)1.22 (0.82–1.83)0.34
Lithocholic (Low)
 High1.001.31 (0.89–1.92)1.21 (0.82–1.80)0.33
Deoxycholic (Low)
 High1.001.04 (0.71–1.55)1.26 (0.84–1.89)0.23
Chenodeoxycholic (Low)
 High1.000.90 (0.60–1.34)0.75 (0.49–1.14)0.18
Cholic (Low)
 High1.000.82 (0.56–1.20)0.82 (0.55–1.22)0.32
Ursocholic (Low)
 High1.000.78 (0.53–1.15)0.81 (0.54–1.20)0.28
Ursodeoxycholic (Low)
 High1.001.05 (0.71–1.56)1.04 (0.69–1.56)0.85
Otherd(Low)
 High1.001.07 (0.73–1.58)1.04 (0.70–1.55)0.84
  • aModels adjusted for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, and calcium intake.

  • bCut-off point for low versus high was median value for each bile acid (mean μg/mL): primary, 7.4; secondary, 197.6; chenodeoxycholic acid, 0.0; cholic acid, 0.0; lithocholic acid, 15.1; deoxycholic acid, 111.4; ursodeoxycholic acid, 0.0; ursocholic acid, 0.0; other, 39.2; total, 214.0.

  • cP values calculated using logistic regression modeling with vitamin D status as a categorical exposure variable.

  • dOther includes isodeoxycholic, isoursodeoxycholic, 7-ketolithocholic, and 12-ketolithocholic acids.