Table 3.

ORs and 95% CIs for diabetes, glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance with primary incident liver cancer over 22 years of follow-up in a nested case–control study from the ATBC cohort

DiabetesSelf-reported diabetes onlyFasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL onlyaSelf-report or fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL
No (ref)YesNo (ref)YesNo (ref)Yes
Controls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)
Age adjusted655/12426/142.59 (1.29–5.18)623/10932/153.11 (1.61–6.03)623/10958/292.97 (1.80–4.90)
Multivariable modelb655/12426/142.48 (1.20–5.12)623/10932/152.95 (1.46–5.96)623/10958/292.79 (1.65–4.75)
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb655/5726/83.45 (1.38–8.63)623/5132/62.69 (0.93–7.80)623/5158/143.14 (1.51–6.54)
>10 years of follow-upb655/6726/61.95 (0.73–5.21)623/5832/93.07 (1.34–7.05)623/5858/152.61 (1.34–5.09)
Q1 (ref; 89, 86–92)cQ2 (97, 95–98)cQ3 (103, 101–104)cQ4 (114, 110–124)c
Glucose (mg/dL)aControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted193/25153/201.05 (0.56–1.98)155/341.69 (0.96–2.98)154/452.30 (1.34–3.96)0.001
Multivariable modelb193/25153/201.28 (0.66–2.49)155/341.88 (1.03–3.49)154/452.40 (1.33–4.35)0.002
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb193/18153/111.26 (0.53–3.01)155/121.07 (0.45–2.50)154/161.40 (0.61–3.21)0.511
>10 years of follow-upb193/7153/91.74 (0.62–4.90)155/223.83 (1.55–9.45)154/294.82 (1.99–11.70)<0.0001
Q1 (ref) 2.4 (1.9–2.6)cQ2 3.6 (3.3–4.0)cQ3 5.3 (4.8–5.8)cQ4 8.7 (7.5–11.2)c
Insulin (μU/mL)aControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted175/20162/170.91 (0.46–1.82)155/211.15 (0.60–2.22)163/663.42 (1.97–5.94)<0.0001
Multivariable modelb175/20162/170.96 (0.47–1.96)155/211.14 (0.55–2.33)163/663.41 (1.74–6.66)<0.0001
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb175/14162/110.87 (0.36–2.12)155/90.52 (0.19–1.45)163/231.22 (0.47–3.19)0.816
>10 years of follow-upb175/6162/61.05 (0.32–3.39)155/122.20 (0.77–6.29)163/437.42 (2.79–19.76)<0.0001
Q1 (ref) 0.51 (0.42–60)cQ2 0.85 (0.76–0.94)cQ3 1.32 (1.20–1.51)cQ4 2.39 (2.07–3.35)c
HOMA-IRaControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted166/18163/181.00 (0.50–2.01)163/201.05 (0.53–2.08)163/683.70 (2.09–6.55)<0.0001
Multivariable modelb166/18163/181.04 (0.50–2.13)163/200.97 (0.46–2.04)163/683.72 (1.89–7.32)<0.0001
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb166/12163/110.94 (0.38–2.35)163/100.58 (0.21–1.63)163/241.60 (0.62–4.14)0.390
>10 years of follow-upb166/6166/71.13 (0.36–3.54)163/101.50 (0.51–4.46)163/446.87 (2.60–18.17)<0.0001
  • aRestricted to participants who did not report a diagnosis of diabetes at baseline.

  • bMultivariable models are adjusted for age (years), cigarettes per day, duration of smoking (years), alcohol intake (≤2.8, >2.8 to ≤11, >11 to ≤26, >26 to ≤44, >44 g/day), anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HCV, BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, ≥35 kg/m2), and education (elementary education or less, more than elementary education).

  • cMedian and IQR among controls.