Table 4.

ORs and 95% CIs for diabetes, glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance with CLD mortality over 22 years of follow-up in a nested case–control study from the ATBC cohort

Self-reported diabetes onlyFasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL onlyaSelf-report or fasting glucose ≥126 m/dL
No (ref)YesNo (ref)YesNo (ref)Yes
DiabetesControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)
Age adjusted655/20726/91.12 (0.51–2.43)623/18532/222.31 (1.31–4.08)623/18558/311.81 (1.13–2.89)
Multivariable modelb655/20726/91.67 (0.71–3.94)623/18532/221.88 (1.00–3.56)623/18558/311.83 (1.09–3.10)
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb655/10926/72.42 (0.93–6.30)623/9232/173.33 (1.62–6.85)623/9258/243.08 (1.70–5.58)
>10 years of follow-upb655/9826/20.70 (0.15–3.40)623/5832/90.71 (0.26–1.99)623/9358/70.72 (0.30–1.72)
Q1 (ref) (89, 86–92)cQ2 (97, 95–98)cQ3 (103, 101–104)cQ4 (114, 110–124)c
Glucose (mg/dL)aControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted193/58153/320.68 (0.42–1.10)155/471.00 (0.64–1.55)154/701.54 (1.02–2.31)0.019
Multivariable modelb193/58153/320.76 (0.45–1.29)155/471.00 (0.62–1.64)154/701.49 (0.93–2.37)0.064
>0–10 years of follow-upb193/27153/140.74 (0.35–1.56)155/251.24 (0.65–2.36)154/432.08 (1.14–3.80)0.007
>10 years of follow-upb193/31153/180.74 (0.38–1.44)155/220.83 (0.44–1.58)154/271.02 (0.54–1.90)0.929
Q1 (ref) 2.4 (1.9–2.6)cQ2 3.6 (3.3–4.0)cQ3 5.3 (4.8–5.8)cQ4 8.7 (7.5–11.2)c
Insulin (μU/mL)aControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted175/45162/330.79 (0.48–1.29)155/451.15 (0.72–1.83)163/842.09 (1.37–3.20)<0.0001
Multivariable modelb175/45162/170.88 (0.50–1.52)155/451.37 (0.80–2.37)163/842.51 (1.44–4.37)0.0002
>0 to 10 years of follow-upb175/20162/191.04 (0.51–2.12)155/241.53 (0.75–3.10)163/462.85 (1.41–5.75)0.002
>10 years of follow-upb175/25162/140.75 (0.36–1.60)155/211.24 (0.60–2.56)163/382.17 (1.06–4.42)0.016
Q1 (ref) 0.51 (0.42–0.60)cQ2 0.85 (0.76–0.94)cQ3 1.32 (1.20–1.51)cQ4 2.39 (2.07–3.35)c
HOMA-IRaControls/casesControls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Ptrend
Age adjusted166/46163/330.72 (0.44–1.18)163/420.97 (0.60–1.55)163/861.98 (1.30–3.02)0.0002
Multivariable modelb166/46163/330.87 (0.50–1.53)163/421.24 (0.71–2.17)163/862.31 (1.34–3.97)0.001
>0–10 years of follow-upb166/23163/160.70 (0.33–1.48)163/231.23 (0.61–2.49)163/472.24 (1.13–4.43)0.005
>10 years of follow-upb166/23163/171.04 (0.50–2.17)163/191.23 (0.58–2.62)163/392.30 (1.12–4.71)0.016
  • aRestricted to participants who did not report a diagnosis of diabetes at baseline.

  • bMultivariable models are adjusted for age (years), cigarettes per day, duration of smoking (years), alcohol intake (≤2.8, >2.8 to ≤11, >11 to ≤26, >26 to ≤44, >44 g/day), anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HCV, BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, ≥35 kg/m2), and education (elementary education or less, more than elementary education).

  • cMedian and IQR among controls.