Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of cases and controls in ATBC

Liver cancerCLD deaths
Baseline characteristicsCasesa (n = 138)Controlsa (n = 253)OR (95% CI)bCasesa (n = 216)Controlsa (n = 428)OR (95% CI)b
Entry age (years)58 (55–62)57 (54–61)1.03 (0.99–1.07)55 (52–58)55 (51–58)1.00 (0.96–1.04)
Cigarettes/day20 (15–25)20 (13–20)1.03 (1.01–1.06)23 (15–25)20 (15–25)1.03 (1.01–1.05)
Smoking duration40 (34–43)37 (30–42)1.02 (1.00–1.05)35 (30–40)35 (30–40)1.00 (0.98–1.03)
Alcohol, >11.3 g/dayc71 (54.6%)115 (47.7%)1.36 (0.89–2.10)157 (81.8%)205 (51.6%)4.25 (2.80–6.46)
HBV, antibody to core antigen, yes22 (15.9%)17 (6.7%)2.52 (1.38–4.96)14 (6.5%)27 (6.3%)1.04 (0.53–2.05)
HBV, surface antigen, yes2 (1.5%)3 (1.2%)1.26 (0.21–7.67)1 (0.5%)1 (0.2%)2.00 (0.12–32.07)
HCV, antibody, yes6 (4.4%)2 (0.8%)5.44 (1.08–27.39)6 (2.8%)2 (0.5%)6.22 (1.24–31.20)
BMI
 <18.5 kg/m22 (1.5%)1 (0.4%)4.62 (0.40–53.08)2 (0.9%)1 (0.2%)3.99 (0.36–44.6)
 18.5 to <25 kg/m238 (27.5%)93 (36.8%)1.0077 (35.7%)154 (36.0%)1.00
 25 to <30 kg/m263 (45.7%)120 (47.4%)1.30 (0.80–2.12)100 (46.3%)203 (47.4%)0.98 (0.68–1.42)
 30 to <35 kg/m228 (20.3%)37 (14.6%)1.85 (1.00–3.45)31 (14.4%)62 (14.5%)1.00 (0.60–1.67)
 ≥35 kg/m27 (5.1%)2 (0.8%)8.39 (1.67–42.29)6 (2.7%)8 (1.9%)1.50 (0.50–4.47)
Elementary education or less103 (74.6%)192 (75.9%)0.94 (0.58–1.52)154 (71.3%)339 (79.2%)0.65 (0.45–0.95)
Self-reported diabetes, yes14 (10.1%)8 (3.2%)3.35 (1.37–8.23)9 (4.2%)18 (4.2%)0.99 (0.44–2.25)
Glucose ≥126 mg/dLd15 (12.1%)10 (4.1%)3.44 (1.49–7.96)22 (10.6%)22 (5.4%)2.10 (1.13–3.88)
Either self-reported or glucose ≥126 mg/dL29 (21.0%)18 (7.1%)3.53 (1.88–6.65)31 (14.4%)40 (9.4%)1.63 (0.99–2.68)
Glucose (mg/dL)d103 (95–113)98 (92–106)1.03 (1.02–1.04)101 (93–111)99 (93–106)1.00 (1.00–1.01)
Insulin (μU/mL)d7.0 (3.8–11.2)4.3 (2.8–6.5)1.16 (1.10–1.22)4.3 (2.9–6.6)5.4 (3.2–9.5)1.06 (1.03–1.09)
HOMA-IRd1.9 (0.9–3.3)1.1 (0.7–1.6)1.65 (1.38–1.98)1.1 (0.7–1.7)1.3 (0.8–2.5)1.18 (1.07–1.30)
  • aMedian (IQR) for continuous variables; n (column %) for categorical variables.

  • bModels, other than the models for entry age, are age adjusted.

  • cMedian level of alcohol consumption was 11.3 g/day.

  • dRestricted to participants who did not report a diagnosis of diabetes at baseline.