Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of controls (n = 655) by median glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR among participants who did not report a previous diagnosis of diabetes.

GlucoseaInsulinaHOMA-IRa
≤99 mg/dL>99 mg/dL≤4.3 μU/mL>4.3 μU/mL≤1.05>1.05
Baseline characteristics(n = 346)(n = 309)Pb(n = 337)(n = 318)Pb(n = 327)(n = 328)Pb
Entry age (years)56 (52–59)56 (52–59)0.3656 (52–59)56 (52–60)0.1656 (51–58)56 (52–60)0.04
Cigarettes/day20 (15–25)20 (15–25)0.4320 (15–24)20 (15–25)0.3620 (15–25)20 (15–25)0.71
Smoking duration35 (30–40)35 (30–40)0.4335 (30–40)35 (30–40)0.5635 (30–40)35 (30–40)0.23
Alcohol, >11.3 g/day156 (47.7%)156 (54.2%)0.11166 (52.4%)146 (49.0%)0.40165 (53.6%)147 (47.9%)0.16
HBV, antibody to core antigen, yes24 (6.9%)19 (6.2%)0.6818 (5.3%)25 (7.9%)0.1918 (5.5%)25 (7.6%)0.27
HBV, surface antigen, yes4 (1.2%)0 (0%)0.132 (0.6%)2 (0.6%)1.002 (0.3%)2 (0.3%)1.00
HCV, antibody, yes3 (0.9%)1 (0.3%)0.631 (0.3%)3 (0.9%)0.361 (0.3%)3 (0.9%)0.62
BMI<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
 <18.5 kg/m20 (0%)2 (0.7%)2 (0.6%)0 (0%)2 (0.6%)0 (0%)
 18.5 to <25 kg/m2153 (44.2%)84 (27.2%)182 (54.0%)55 (17.3%)177 (54.1%)60 (18.3%)
 25 to <30 kg/m2156 (45.1)157 (50.8%)138 (41.0%)175 (55.0%)135 (41.3%)178 (54.3%)
 30 to <35 kg/m234 (9.8%)60 (19.4%)15 (4.4%)79 (24.8%)13 (4.0%)81 (24.7%)
 ≥35 kg/m23 (0.9%)6 (1.9%)0 (0%)9 (2.8%)0 (0%)9 (2.7%)
≤Elementary education264 (76.3%)244 (79.0%)0.42264 (78.3%)244 (76.7%)0.62258 (78.9%)250 (76.2%)0.41
Glucose (mg/dL)93 (89–97)106 (103–114)nd96 (90–102)102 (97–111)<0.000195 (90–100)103 (98–112)nd
Insulin (μU/mL)3.4 (2.4–5.2)5.5 (3.7–8.3)<0.00012.9 (2.3–3.5)6.7 (5.3–8.8)nd2.9 (2.3–3.5)6.5 (5.2–11.9)nd
HOMA-IR0.8 (0.5–1.2)1.5 (1.0–2.3)nd0.7 (0.5–0.9)1.7 (1.3–2.4)nd0.7 (0.5–0.9)1.7 (1.3–2.3)nd
  • Abbreviation: nd, not determined.

  • aRestricted to participants who did not report a diagnosis of diabetes at baseline.

  • bP value for Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Jonckheere–Terpstra test for continuous variables.