Table 5.

ORs and 95% CIs for the joint effects analysis of diabetes with fasting insulin levelsa and alcohol consumptionb with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality among those without a self-reported history of diabetes at baseline

No diabetes (glucose < 126 mg/dL)Diabetes (glucose ≥126 mg/dL)Pinteraction
Controls/casesOR (95% CI)Controls/casesOR (95% CI)MultiplicativeAdditive
Liver cancerc0.6060.421
Insulin ≤6.7 μU/mL478/561.00 (ref)14/21.54 (0.32–7.48)
Insulin >6.7 μU/mL145/532.91 (1.77–4.80)18/137.17 (3.10–16.55)
Chronic liver diseasec0.2520.322
Insulin ≤6.7 μU/mL478/1201.00 (ref)14/30.73 (0.19–2.90)
Insulin >6.7 μU/mL145/652.05 (1.32–3.18)18/193.79 (1.75–8.22)
Liver cancerd0.6940.944
Alcohol ≤11.3 g/day291/471.00 (ref)12/63.56 (1.21–10.50)
Alcohol >11.3 g/day296/551.24 (0.79–1.97)16/83.32 (1.25–8.87)
Chronic liver diseased0.2950.930
Alcohol ≤11.3 g/day291/261.00 (ref)12/54.52 (1.38–14.78)
Alcohol >11.3 g/day296/1364.96 (3.08–7.99)16/1610.68 (4.63–24.65)
  • aAbove versus below the 75% of insulin in controls, 6.7 μU/mL.

  • bAbove versus below the median level of alcohol consumption 11.3 g/day.

  • cModels are adjusted for age (years), cigarettes per day, duration of smoking (years), alcohol intake (≤2.8, >2.8 to ≤11, >11 to ≤26, >26 to ≤44, >44 g/day), anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HCV, BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, ≥35 kg/m2), education (elementary education or less, more than elementary education).

  • dModels are adjusted for age (years), cigarettes per day, duration of smoking (years), anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HCV, BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, ≥35 kg/m2), education (elementary education or less, more than elementary education).