Table 2.

Vaccines and antimicrobial interventions likely beneficial in cancer prevention

Infectious organismAvailable intervention (s)Cancer type
Human papillomavirus (HPV)Gardasil 9 vaccineCervix
 - HPV - 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58Vulva
Cervarix vaccineVagina
 - HPV - 16, 18Anusa
Hepatitis B virusHepatitis B vaccineHepatocellular carcinoma
Interferon therapy
Nucleoside analogues
Hepatitis C virusNucleoside analoguesHepatocellular carcinoma
Interferon therapy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Antiretroviral therapyNon-Hodgkin lymphoma
 - Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8)Kaposi Sarcoma
Helicobacter pyloriAntibioticsStomach
SchistomiasisAntischistosomalBladder
Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini (liver flukes)AntihelmenthicCholangiocarcinoma
  • aOnly Gardasil 9 is approved in males ages 9 through 15 years.