Table 3.

HR for incidence of smoking-related cancers and total cancers in ever-smokers of pipe and/or cigars (but not cigarettes), by type of product(s) smoked

Never smokersaEver cigar smokers onlyEver pipe smokers onlyEver cigar and pipe smokers only
Cancer groupCasesCasesHR (95% CI)CasesHR (95% CI)CasesHR (95% CI)
Smoking-related cancersb5,2573311.47 (1.34–1.61)3791.20 (1.07–1.33)5891.23 (1.13–1.34)
Head and neck386381.40 (0.98–2.00)351.53 (1.07–2.20)581.49 (1.09–2.03)
Esophageal166121.01 (0.56–1.84)232.07 (1.28–3.34)191.07 (0.65–1.76)
Lung365872.73 (2.06–3.60)451.87 (1.33–2.64)661.55 (1.13–2.11)
Gastric262271.06 (0.64–1.76)161.07 (0.63–1.80)281.18 (0.79–1.77)
Pancreas453341.10 (0.75–1.63)161.21 (0.84–1.72)601.19 (0.83–1.72)
Liver145100.76 (0.34–1.71)121.32 (0.66–2.64)322.25 (1.46–3.46)
Kidney667221.18 (0.88–1.58)451.13 (0.83–1.54)281.11 (0.85–1.46)
Bladder841631.14 (0.88–1.48)731.40 (1.07–1.84)1061.15 (0.90–1.47)
Colorectal1,9741390.96 (0.80–1.16)1301.08 (0.89–1.33)2341.19 (1.02–1.39)
Prostate4,4533110.94 (0.79–1.11)3001.15 (0.86–1.53)730.88 (0.70–1.10)
All cancersc20,4781,4221.07 (1.02–1.16)1,4521.13 (1.08–1.18)2,1331.10 (1.06–1.15)
  • NOTE: All analyses adjusted for age at enrollment, gender, body mass index at enrollment, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, average alcohol intake, and family history of specific cancer (and history of chronic lung disease for lung cancer analysis, history for chronic liver disease for liver cancer analysis).

  • aNever smokers—referent category.

  • bSmoking-related cancers include cancers of head and neck, esophagus, lung, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidney, bladder, and colorectal.

  • cAll cancer incidence calculated for any invasive cancer including, smoking-related cancers.