Table 2.

HR for incidence of smoking-related cancers and all cancers in ever-smokers of pipe and/or cigars (but not cigarettes) relative to never smokers of any tobacco products

Never smokersaEver cigar and/or pipe smokers
Cancer groupCasesCasesHR (95% CI)
Smoking-related cancersb5,2571,2991.07 (1.03–1.12)
Head and neck3861311.51 (1.22–1.87)
Esophagus166541.29 (0.92–1.81)
Lung3651982.04 (1.68–2.47)
Gastric262711.15 (0.86–1.53)
Pancreas4531281.19 (0.91–1.57)
Liver145541.56 (1.08–2.26)
Kidney6671681.13 (0.94–1.36)
Bladder8412421.16 (0.98–1.37)
Colorectal1,9745031.08 (0.97–1.20)
Prostate4,8961,0370.93 (0.81–1.07)
All cancersc20,4785,0071.05 (1.02–1.08)
  • NOTE: All analyses adjusted for age at enrollment, gender, body mass index at enrollment, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, average alcohol intake, and family history of specific cancer (and history of chronic lung disease for lung cancer analysis, history for chronic liver disease for liver cancer analysis).

  • aNever smokers—referent category.

  • bSmoking-related cancers include cancers of head and neck, esophagus, lung, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidney, bladder, and colorectal.

  • cAll cancer incidence calculated for any invasive cancer including, smoking related-cancers.