Table 1.

Characteristics of male participants by study at time of enrollment

NLCS (n = 58,279)aMCCS (n = 16,491)VITAL (n = 37,372)NIH-AARP (n = 339,666)PLCO (n = 72,632)
CountryNetherlandsAustraliaUSAUSAUSA
Enrollment years19861990–19942000–20021995–19961993–2001
Median duration of follow-up, years17.318.69.915.512.5
Age at enrollment, years (mean ± SD)61.3 ± 4.255.6 ± 8.862.0 ± 7.462.3 ± 5.362.7 ± 5.3
BMI categories in kg/m2 (%)
 <18.50.50.20.70.40.3
 18.5 to 2552.827.428.323.725.6
 25 to 3042.953.248.246.249.5
 ≥303.819.122.829.824.5
Ethnicity, white (%)100.0100.092.092.588.3
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never smoker201 (9.2)6,592 (40.0)12,434 (33.3)77,664 (22.9)20,854 (28.7)
 Ever cigarette smokers only1,322 (60.3)7,398 (44.9)13,283 (35.5)150,975 (44.5)25,179 (34.7)
 Ever cigar smokers only46 (2.1)56 (0.3)486 (1.3)4,522 (1.3)1,512 (2.1)
 Ever pipe smokers only8 (0.4)95 (0.6)990 (2.7)5,214 (1.5)1,431 (2.0)
 Ever both cigarettes and cigars283 (12.9)461 (2.8)1,805 (4.8)14,767 (4.4)4,469 (6.2)
 Ever both cigarettes and pipe90 (4.1)1,044 (6.3)4,181 (11.2)27,700 (8.2)6,999 (9.6)
 Ever both pipe and cigars23 (1.1)31 (0.2)776 (2.1)7,674 (2.3)2,629 (3.6)
 Ever cigarettes, pipe, and cigars218 (10.0)814 (4.9)3,417 (9.1)32,312 (9.5)9,559 (13.2)
Ever smoker of pipe and/or cigars onlyb77 (3.5)182 (1.1)1,476 (6.0)17,410 (5.1)5,572 (7.7)
  • Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • aNLCS subcohort = 2,191 for reporting baseline characteristics.

  • bGroup represents ever-smokers of either pipe, cigars, or both and, never smokers of cigarettes.