Table 4.

HR for each smoking-related cancer by exclusive/predominant smoking product categories

VITALNLCSCombined
Cancer groupHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Head and neckPredominantly cigar-2.41 (0.86–6.78)-
Exclusive cigar3.56 (1.24–10.21)1.83 (0.60–5.54)2.59 (1.21–5.58)
Predominantly pipe0.82 (0.11–6.05)3.51 (1.01–12.18)2.34 (0.81–6.74)
Exclusive pipe0.86 (0.20–3.62)7.17 (1.67–30.85)2.47 (0.88–6.89)
EsophagusPredominantly cigara1.45 (0.37–5.73)b
Exclusive cigara1.39 (0.35–5.47)b
Predominantly pipea6.43 (1.90–21.73)b
Exclusive pipe4.45 (1.39–14.21)4.57 (0.72–28.98)4.48 (1.68–11.99)
LungPredominantly cigar-9.51 (4.83–18.71)-
Exclusive cigar1.64 (0.39–6.91)8.61 (4.44–16.86)6.44 (3.53–11.75)
Predominantly pipe2.17 (0.66–7.17)15.29 (6.96–33.59)8.46 (4.38–16.31)
Exclusive pipe1.25 (0.38–4.13)8.76 (2.53–30.30)3.18 (1.35–7.52)
GastricPredominantly cigara1.79 (0.78–4.13)b
Exclusive cigar2.51 (0.58–10.88)1.83 (0.85–3.98)1.96 (0.99–3.88)
Predominantly pipe1.17 (0.15–8.76)1.16 (0.31–4.30)1.16 (0.39–3.51)
Exclusive pipe1.34 (0.31–5.79)1.37 (0.24–7.68)1.35 (0.44–4.14)
PancreasPredominantly cigar1.98 (0.60–6.46)0.50 (0.06–4.12)1.64 (0.53–5.09)
Exclusive cigar1.71 (0.23–12.59)1.60 (0.40–6.30)1.42 (0.51–4.01)
Predominantly pipe0.58 (0.08–4.22)3.70 (0.92–14.83)2.01 (0.64–6.27)
Exclusive pipe1.02 (0.31–3.33)ab
KidneyPredominantly cigar1.46 (0.20–10.59)0.95 (0.26–3.43)1.08 (0.37–3.18)
Exclusive cigar1.56 (0.48–5.02)1.88 (0.73–4.81)1.75 (0.84–3.64)
Predominantly pipe1.97 (0.71–5.50)2.41 (0.73–7.99)2.15 (0.99–4.67)
Exclusive pipe1.31 (0.52–3.29)ab
BladderPredominantly cigara1.91 (0.82–4.46)b
Exclusive cigara1.89 (0.19–3.60)b
Predominantly pipe0.62 (0.08–4.59)4.38 (1.77–10.84)3.16 (1.38–7.23)
Exclusive pipe0.75 (0.18–3.14)3.60 (0.88–14.65)1.67 (0.61–4.54)
ColorectalPredominantly cigar1.81 (0.57–5.74)1.12 (0.63–1.99)1.23 (0.74–2.06)
Exclusive cigar1.64 (0.76–3.55)0.97 (0.55–1.69)1.16 (0.74–1.83)
Predominantly pipe0.64 (0.20–2.02)1.36 (0.64–2.87)1.09 (0.58–2.04)
Exclusive pipe0.96 (0.47–1.99)1.76 (0.57–5.44)1.15 (0.62–2.10)
All cancerscPredominantly cigar0.97 (0.40–2.35)1.34 (0.85–2.11)1.25 (0.84–1.88)
Exclusive cigar1.7 (1.14–2.68)1.12 (0.72–1.72)1.41 (1.04–1.91)
Predominantly pipe0.95 (0.56–1.62)1.87 (1.03–3.40)1.28 (0.86–1.91)
Exclusive pipe1.19 (0.82–1.73)1.69 (0.64–4.451.25 (0.88–1.76)
  • NOTE: All analyses adjusted for age at enrollment, gender, body mass index at enrollment, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, average alcohol intake, and family history of specific cancer (and history of chronic lung disease for lung cancer analysis, history for chronic liver disease for liver cancer analysis). Never smokers—referent category.

  • aNo cancer cases reported in this category.

  • bCombined HR not calculated as only one study with HR calculated.

  • cAll cancer incidence calculated for all cancers including prostate cancer.